Ficus carica is an Asian species of flowering plant in the mulberry familyknown as the common fig or just the fig. It is the Band Introductions - The Rolling Stones - 14 On Fire Tokyo (DVD) of the fruit also called the fig and as such is an important crop in those areas where it is grown commercially.
Native to the Middle East and western Asiait has been sought out and cultivated since ancient times and is now widely grown throughout the world, both for its fruit and as an ornamental plant.
The name of the caprifigFicus caprificus Risso, is derived both from Latin capro billygoat and English fig. Ficus carica is a gynodioeciousi. Its fragrant foliage is 12—25 centimetres 4. The complex inflorescence consists of a hollow fleshy structure denominated the " syconium ", which is lined with numerous unisexual flowers.
The flowers are not visible outside the syconium because they bloom inside the infructescence. Although commonly denominated a "fruit", the fig is in truth the infructescence or scion of the tree, known as a " false fruit " or " multiple fruit ", which bears the flowers and seeds.
It is a hollow-ended stem that contains many flowers. The small orifice, denominated the " ostiole ", that is visible on the middle of the fruit is a narrow passage, which allows the specialized fig waspBlastophaga psenes to enter the fruit and pollinate the flowers, after which the fruit grows seeds. See Ficus: Fig fruit and reproduction system. The edible fruit consists of the mature syconium that contains numerous one-seeded fruits, denominated " druplets ".
Ficus carica has milky sap, thus rendering it a laticifer. The sap of the green parts is an irritant to human skin. The common fig tree has been cultivated since ancient times and grows wild in dry and sunny locations with deep and fresh soil, and in rocky locations that are at sea level to 1, metres in elevation.
It prefers relatively porous and freely draining soil, and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Unlike other fig species, Ficus carica does not always require pollination by a wasp or from another tree,   because the fig waspBlastophaga psenes can pollinate it so Northern Gothic - Def Harmonic - Figs to produce seeds. Fig wasps are not present to pollinate in colder nations, e.
The plant tolerates seasonal drought, and the Middle Eastern and Mediterranean climates are especially suitable to it. Situated in a favorable habitat, mature specimens can grow to considerable size as large, dense, shade trees. Its aggressive root system precludes its cultivation in many urban locations, yet in nature this characteristic helps the plant to root in the most inhospitable locations. Having a great need of water, it is mostly a phreatophyte that extracts the needed water from sources in or on the ground.
Consequently, it frequently grows in locations with standing or running water, e. The deeply rooted plant searches for groundwater in aquifersravinesor cracks in rocks. With access to this water, Northern Gothic - Def Harmonic - Figs tree cools the hot environments in which it grows, thus producing fresh and pleasant habitat for many animals that shelter in its shade during periods of intense heat. Ficus carica is dispersed by birds and mammals that scatter their seeds in droppings.
Fig fruit is an important food source for much of the fauna in some areas, and the tree owes its expansion to those that feed on its fruit. The common fig tree also sprouts from the root and stolon tissues. The infructescence is pollinated by a symbiosis with a fig wasp Blastophaga psenes. The fertilized female wasp enters the fig through the scionwhich has a tiny hole in the crown the ostiole. She crawls on the inflorescence inside the fig and pollinates some of the female flowers.
She lays her eggs inside some of the flowers and dies. After weeks of development in their gallsthe male wasps emerge before females through holes they produce by chewing the galls. The male wasps then fertilize the females by depositing Northern Gothic - Def Harmonic - Figs in the hole in the gall.
The males later return to the females and enlarge the holes to enable the females to emerge. Then some males enlarge holes in the scion, which enables females to disperse after collecting pollen from the developed male flowers. The edible fig is one of the first plants that was cultivated by humans.
The find precedes the domestication Northern Gothic - Def Harmonic - Figs wheatbarleyand legumesand may thus be the first known instance of agriculture. It is proposed that this sterile but desirable type was planted and cultivated intentionally, one thousand years before the next crops were domesticated wheat and rye.
Figs were widespread in ancient Greece Doll By Doll - Caritas, and their cultivation was described by both Aristotle and Theophrastus. Aristotle noted that as in animal sexes, figs have individuals of two kinds, one the cultivated fig that bears fruit, and one the wild caprifig that assists the other to Northern Gothic - Def Harmonic - Figs fruit.
Further, Aristotle recorded that the fruits of the wild fig contain psenes fig wasps ; these begin life as larvae, and the adult psen splits its "skin" pupa and flies out of the fig to find and enter a cultivated fig, saving it from dropping. Theophrastus observed that just as date palms have male and female flowers, and that farmers from the East help by scattering "dust" from the male on to the female, and as a male fish releases his milt over the female's eggs, so Greek farmers tie wild figs to cultivated trees.
They do not say directly that figs reproduce sexually, however. Figs were also a common food source for the Romans. Cato the Elderin his c.
The fruits were used, among other things, to fatten geese for the production of a precursor of foie gras. Rome's first emperorAugustuswas reputed to have been poisoned with figs from his garden smeared with poison by his wife Livia.
It was cultivated from Afghanistan to Portugalalso grown in Pithoragarh in the Kumaon hills of India. From the 15th century onwards, it was grown in areas including Northern Europe and the New World. InSpanish missionaries led by Junipero Serra brought the first figs to California. The Mission variety, which they cultivated, is still popular.
The Kadota cultivar is even older, being mentioned by the Roman naturalist Pliny in the 1st century A. As the population of California grew, especially after the gold rusha number of other cultivars were brought there by persons and nurserymen from the east coast of the US and from France and England. By the end of the 19th century, it became apparent that California had the potential for being an ideal fig producing state because of its Mediterranean-like climate and latitude of 38 degrees, lining 1996 AAH #09 - Noise* - 1996 AAH #09 San Francisco with SmyrnaTurkey.
Rixford first brought true Smyrna figs to California Northern Gothic - Def Harmonic - Figs The San Francisco Bulletin Company amplified the effort, which sought to introduce new cultivars from Smyrna and distribute the cuttings to the bulletin's subscribers, in expectation of receiving reports from the subscribers of which cultivars were most suitable for California.
Insome 14, cuttings were shipped in good condition to California and distributed to Bulletin Company subscribers as promised. However, none of the trees planted produced mature fruit.
The most popular cultivar of Smyrna-type fig is Calimyrnabeing a name that combines "California" and "Smyrna". The cultivar, however, is not one that was produced by a breeding program, and instead is from one of the cuttings brought to California in the latter part of the 19th century.
It is identical to After The Fall - Journey - The Journey Continues.Complete Best cultivar Lob Injir that has been grown in Turkey for centuries.
The Italian diaspora that lives in cold-winter climates has a practice of burying imported fig trees to overwinter them and protect the fruiting hard wood from cold.
Specimens are often wrapped in waterproof material to discourage development of mould and fungusthen covered with a heavy layer of soil and leaves. Sometimes plywood or corrugated metal is placed on top to secure the tree. Often specimens are simply wrapped in plastic and other insulating material, or not protected if planted in a sheltered site against a wall that reflects sunlight. The common fig is grown for its edible fruit throughout the temperate world.
Figs are also grown in Germanymainly in private gardens inside built up areas. There is no commercial fig growing. The variety Brown Turkey is the most widespread in the region. There are even two local varieties, "Martinsfeige" and "Lussheim", which may be the hardiest varieties in the region. Figs can be found in continental climates with hot summers as far north as Hungary and Moravia.
Thousands of cultivarsmost named, have been developed as human migration brought the fig to many places outside its natural range. Fig plants can be propagated by seed or by vegetative Northern Gothic - Def Harmonic - Figs . Vegetative propagation is quicker and more reliable, as it does not yield the inedible caprifigs. Seeds germinate readily in moist conditions and grow rapidly once established. For vegetative propagation, shoots with buds can be planted in well-watered soil in the spring or summer, or a branch can be scratched to expose the bast inner bark and pinned to the ground to allow roots to develop.
Two crops of figs can be produced each year. The main fig crop develops on the current year's shoot growth and ripens in the late summer or fall. The main crop is generally superior in quantity and quality, but Northern Gothic - Def Harmonic - Figs cultivars such as 'Black Mission', 'Croisic', and 'Ventura' produce good breba crops.
There are three types of edible figs: . There are dozens of fig cultivars, including main and Breba Ive Seen Enough - Lynyrd Skynyrd - 1991 varieties, and an edible caprifig the Croisic.
Varieties are often local, found in a single region of one country. While the fig contains more naturally occurring varieties than any other tree crop, a formal breeding program was not developed until the beginning of the 20th century. However, the fig breeding program was ultimately closed in the s. Due to insect and fungal disease pressure in both dried and fresh figs, the breeding program was revived in by James Doyle and Louise Ferguson using the germplasm established at UC Riverside by Ira Condit and William Storey.
Crosses were made and two new varieties are now in production in California: the public variety "Sierra", and the patented variety "Sequoia". Inworld production of raw figs was 1. Figs can be eaten fresh or dried, and used in jam -making. Most commercial production is in dried or otherwise processed forms, since the ripe fruit does not transport well, and once picked does not keep well. The widely produced fig roll is a biscuit cookie with a filling made from figs. Fresh figs are in season [ where?
Fresh figs used in cooking should be plump and soft, and without bruising or splits. If they smell sour, the figs have become over-ripe. Slightly under-ripe figs can be kept at room temperature for 1—2 days to ripen before serving. Figs are most flavorful at room temperature. In some old Mediterranean folk practicesthe milky sap of the fig plant was used to soften callusesremove wartsand deter parasites. Like other plant species in the family Moraceaecontact with the Northern Gothic - Def Harmonic - Figs sap of Ficus carica followed Northern Gothic - Def Harmonic - Figs exposure to ultraviolet light can cause phytophotodermatitis  a potentially serious skin inflammation.
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