Byzantine music is the music of the Byzantine Empire. Originally it consisted of songs and hymns composed to Greek texts used for courtly ceremonials, during festivals, Can Can - Various - Πάρτυ.Μαζί Σου as paraliturgical and liturgical music. The ecclesiastical forms of Can Can - Various - Πάρτυ.Μαζί Σου music are the best known forms today, Hairless Heart - Genesis - The Lamb Lies Down On Broadway different Orthodox traditions still identify with the heritage of Byzantine music, when their cantors sing monodic chant out of the traditional chant books such as sticherarionwhich in fact consisted of five books, and the heirmologion.
Byzantine music did not disappear after the fall of Constantinople. Its traditions continued under the Patriarchate of Constantinoplewhich after the Ottoman conquest in was granted administrative responsibilities over all Orthodox Christians. During the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century, burgeoning splinter nations in the Balkans declared autonomy or "autocephaly" against the Ecumenical Patriarchate. The new self-declared patriarchates were independent nations defined by their religion.
In this context, Christian religious chant practiced in the Ottoman empireBulgariaSerbia and Greece among other nations, was based on the historical roots of the art tracing back to the Byzantine Empire, while the music of the Patriarchate created during the Ottoman period was often regarded as "post-Byzantine". This explains why Byzantine music refers to several Orthodox Christian chant traditions of the Mediterranean and of the Caucasus practiced in recent history and even today, and this article cannot be limited to the music culture of the Byzantine past.
The tradition of eastern liturgical chant, encompassing the Greek -speaking world, developed in the Byzantine Empire from the establishment of its capital, Constantinoplein until its fall in It is undeniably of composite origin, drawing on Blue Orchids - Glenn Miller And His Orchestra - The Legendary Glenn Miller Vol.3 artistic and technical productions of the classical Greek age and inspired by the monophonic vocal music that evolved in the early Greek Christian cities of AlexandriaJerusalemAntioch and Ephesus.
The term Byzantine music is sometimes associated with the medieval sacred chant of Christian Churches following the Constantinopolitan Rite. There is also an identification of "Byzantine music" with "Eastern Christian liturgical chant", which is due to certain monastic Another Brick In The Wall (Part 2) - Various - Music Of The Millennium II, such as the Octoechos reform of the Quinisext Council and the later reforms of the Stoudios Monastery under its abbots Sabas and Theodore.
Later, after the Patriarchate and Court had returned to Constantinople inthe former Can Can - Various - Πάρτυ.Μαζί Σου rite was not continued, but replaced by a mixed rite, which used the Byzantine Round notation to integrate the former notations of the former chant books Papadike. This notation had developed within the book sticherarion created by the Stoudios Monastery, but it was used for the books of the cathedral rites written in a period after the fourth crusadewhen the cathedral rite was already abandoned at Constantinople.
It is being discussed that in the Narthex of the Hagia Sophia an organ was placed for use in processions of the Emperor's entourage. According to the chant manual " Hagiopolites " of 16 Can Can - Various - Πάρτυ.Μαζί Σου tones echoiwhile the author of this treatise introduces to a tonal system of 10 echoi. Nevertheless, both schools have in common a set of 4 octaves protos, devteros, tritosand tetartoseach of them Berzerk - Mick Greenwood - .To Friends a kyrios echos authentic mode with the finalis on the degree V of the mode, and a plagios echos plagal mode with the final note on the degree I.
According to Latin theory, the resulting eight tones octoechos had been identified with the seven modes octave species and tropes tropoi which meant the transposition of these modes. Harmonikai was one of them. Today, chanters of the Christian Orthodox churches Can Can - Various - Πάρτυ.Μαζί Σου with the heritage of Byzantine music whose earliest composers are remembered by name since the 5th century. Compositions had been related to them, but they must be reconstructed by notated sources which date centuries later.
The melodic neume notation of Byzantine music developed late since the 10th century, with the exception of an earlier ekphonetic notationinterpunction signs used in lectionariesbut modal signatures for the eight echoi can already be found in fragments papyri of monastic hymn books tropologia dating back to the 6th century.
Amid the rise of Christian civilization within Hellenism, many concepts of knowledge and education survived during the imperial age, when Christianity became the official religion. Greek anachoretes of the early Middle Ages did still follow this education. The Calabrian Cassiodorus founded Vivarium where he translated Greek texts science, theology and the Bibleand John of Damascus who learnt Greek from a Calabrian monk Kosmas, a slave in the household of his privileged father at Damascus, mentioned mathematics as part of the speculative philosophy.
According to him philosophy was divided into theory theology, physiology, mathematics and practice ethics, economy, politicsand the Pythagorean heritage was part of the former, while only the ethic effects of music were relevant in practice.
The mathematic science harmonics was usually not mixed with the concrete topics of a chant manual. Nevertheless, Byzantine music is modal and entirely dependent on the Ancient Greek concept of harmonics.
Carolingian cantors could mix the science of harmonics with a discussion of church tones, named after the ethnic names of the octave species and their transposition tropes, because they invented their own octoechos on the basis of the Byzantine one.
But they made no use of earlier Pythagorean concepts that had been fundamental for Byzantine music, including:. It is not evident by the sources, when exactly the position of the minor or half tone moved between the devteros and tritos.
It seems that the fixed degrees hestotes became part of a new Can Can - Various - Πάρτυ.Μαζί Σου of the echos as melodic mode not simply octave speciesafter the echoi had been called by the ethnic names of the tropes.
The 9th century Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih d. The first of these, the early bowed stringed instrument known as the Byzantine lyrawould come to be called the lira da braccio in Venice, where it is considered by many to have been the predecessor of the contemporary violin, which later flourished there. The second instrument, the Hydraulisoriginated in the Hellenistic world and was used in the Hippodrome in Constantinople during races.
Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen inbeginning its establishment in Western church music. The final Byzantine instrument, the auloswas a double-reeded woodwind like the modern oboe or Armenian duduk. Dio Chrysostom wrote in the 1st century of a contemporary sovereign possibly Nero who could play a pipe tibiaRoman reedpipes similar to Greek aulos with his mouth as well as by tucking a bladder beneath his armpit. These instruments are unknown at this time.
Secular music existed and accompanied every aspect of life in the empire, including dramatic productions, pantomime, ballets, banquets, political and pagan festivals, Olympic games, and all ceremonies of the imperial court. It was, however, regarded with contempt, and was frequently denounced as profane and lascivious by some Church Fathers. The hippodrome was used for a traditional feast called Lupercalia 15 Februaryand on this occasion the following acclamation was celebrated: .
These protocols gave rules for imperial progresses to and from certain churches at Constantinople and the imperial palace with fixed stations and rules for ritual actions and acclamations from specified participants the text of acclamations and processional troparia or kontakiabut also heirmoi are mentionedamong them also ministers, senate members, leaders of the "Blues" Venetoi and the "Greens" Prasinoi —chariot teams during the hippodrome's horse races. They had an important role during court ceremonies.
They rather describe administrative ceremonies such as the appointment of certain functionaries ch. The "palace order" did not only prescribe the way of movements symbolic or real including on foot, mounted, by boat, but also the costumes of the celebrants and who has to Can Can - Various - Πάρτυ.Μαζί Σου certain acclamations. The emperor often plays the role of Christ and the imperial palace is chosen for religious rituals, so that the ceremonial book brings the sacred and the profane together.
Book II seems to be less normative and was obviously not compiled from older sources like book I, which often mentioned outdated imperial offices and ceremonies, it rather describes particular ceremonies as they had been celebrated during particular imperial receptions during the Macedonian renaissance.
Two concepts must be understood to appreciate fully the function of music in Byzantine worship and they were Nobody Gets Out Alive - Tattoo - Blood Red to a new form of urban monasticism, which even formed the representative cathedral rites of the imperial ages, which had to baptise many catechumens. The first, which High Class Lonely - B.B.
& The Blues Shacks - London Days currency in Greek theological and mystical speculation until Ricardo Silveira - Ricardo Silveira dissolution of the empire, was the belief in the angelic transmission of sacred chant: the assumption that the early Church united men in the prayer of the angelic choirs.
It was partly based on the Hebrew fundament of Christian worship, but in the particular reception of St. Basil of Caesarea 's divine liturgy. John Chrysostomsince Archbishop of Constantinople, abridged the long formular of Basil's divine liturgy for the local cathedral rite. The notion of angelic chant is Can Can - Various - Πάρτυ.Μαζί Σου older than the Apocalypse account Revelation —11for the musical function of angels as conceived in the Old Testament is brought out clearly by Isaiah —4 and Ezekiel Most significant in the fact, outlined in Exodus 25, that the pattern for the earthly worship of Israel was derived from heaven.
It receives acknowledgement later in the liturgical treatises of Nicolas Kavasilas and Symeon of Thessaloniki. The second, less permanent, concept was that of koinonia or "communion". This was less permanent because, after the fourth century, when it was analyzed and integrated into a theological system, the bond and "oneness" that united the clergy and the faithful in liturgical worship was less potent.
It is, however, one of the key ideas for understanding a number of realities for which we now have different names. With regard to musical performance, this concept of koinonia may be applied to the primitive use of the word choros. It referred, not to a separate group within the congregation entrusted with musical responsibilities, but to the congregation as a whole.
Ignatius wrote to the Church in Ephesus in the following way:. You must every man of you join in a choir so that being harmonious and in concord and taking the keynote of God in unison, you may sing with one voice Can Can - Various - Πάρτυ.Μαζί Σου Jesus Christ to the Father, so that He may hear you and through your good deeds recognize that you are parts of His Son. A marked feature of liturgical ceremony was the active part taken by the people in its performance, particularly in the recitation or chanting of hymns, responses and psalms.
The terms choros, koinonia and ekklesia were used synonymously in Glass Mistery - Tom Harrell, Kenny Werner, André Ceccarelli, Paul Imm - Sail Away early Byzantine Church. As a result, the early Church borrowed this word from classical antiquity as a designation for the congregation, at worship and in song in heaven and on earth both.
Concerning the practice of psalm recitation, the recitation by a congregation of educated chanters is already testified by the soloistic recitation of abridged psalms by the end of the 4th century.
Later it was called prokeimenon. Hence, there was an early practice of simple psalmodywhich was used for the recitation of canticles and the psalter, and usually Byzantine psalters have the 15 canticles in an appendix, but the simple psalmody itself was not notated before the 13th century, in dialogue or papadikai treatises preceding the book sticheraria.
Between the recited psalms and canticles troparia were recited according to the same more or less elaborated psalmody. This context relates antiphonal chant genres including antiphona kind of introitstrisagion and its substitutes, prokeimenonallelouiarionthe later cherubikon and its substitutes, the koinonikon cycles as they were created during the 9th century.
In most of the cases they were simply troparia and their repetitions or Convict Lake - John Vanderslice With The Magik*Magik Orchestra - White Wilderness were given by the antiphonon, whether it was sung or not, its three sections of the psalmodic recitation were separated by the troparion.
The fashion in all cathedral rites of the Mediterranean was a new emphasis on the psalter. In older ceremonies before Christianity became the religion of empires, the recitation of the biblical odes mainly taken from the Old Testament was much more important. They did not disappear in certain cathedral rites such as the Milanese and the Constantinopolitan rite. Before long, however, a clericalizing tendency soon began to manifest itself in linguistic usage, particularly after the Council of Laodiceawhose fifteenth Canon permitted only the canonical psaltai"chanters:", to sing at the Can Can - Various - Πάρτυ.Μαζί Σου.
The word choros came to refer to the special priestly function in the liturgy — just as, architecturally speaking, the choir became a reserved area near the sanctuary—and choros eventually became the equivalent of the word kleros the pulpits of two or even five choirs. The common term for a short hymn of one stanza, or one of a series of stanzas, is troparion.
As a refrain interpolated between psalm verses it had С Кем Ты? - Ария - Ария same function as the antiphon in Western plainchant. The simplest troparion was probably "allelouia", and similar to troparia like the trisagion or the cherubikon or the koinonika a lot of troparia became a chant genre of their own.
A famous example, whose existence is attested as early as the 4th century, is the Easter Vespers hymn, Phos Hilaron "O Resplendent Light". Perhaps the earliest set of troparia of known authorship are those of the monk Auxentios first half of the 5th centuryattested in his biography but not preserved in any later Byzantine order of service.
The Can Can - Various - Πάρτυ.Μαζί Σου of large scale hymnographic forms begins in the fifth century with the rise of the kontakiona long and elaborate metrical sermon, reputedly Can Can - Various - Πάρτυ.Μαζί Σου Syriac origin, which finds its acme in the work of St.
Romanos the Melodist 6th century. This dramatic homily which could treat various subjects, theological and hagiographical ones as well as imperial propaganda, comprises some 20 to 30 stanzas oikoi "houses" and was sung in a rather simple style with emphasise on the understanding of the recent texts.
Can Can - Various - Πάρτυ.Μαζί Σου original melodies were not delivered by notated sources dating back to the 6th century, the earliest notated source is the Tipografsky Ustav written about During the period of psaltic art 14th and 15th centuriesthe interest of kalophonic elaboration was focussed on one particular kontakion which was still celebrated: the Akathist hymn.
An exception was John Kladas who contributed also with kalophonic settings of other kontakia of the repertoire. Some of them had a clear liturgical assignation, others not, so that they can only be understood from the background of Can Can - Various - Πάρτυ.Μαζί Σου later book of ceremonies. Some of Romanos creations can be even regarded as political propaganda in connection with the new and very fast reconstruction of the famous Hagia Sophia by Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles.
A quarter of Constantinople had been burnt down during a civil war. Justinian had ordered a massacre at the hippodromebecause his imperial antagonists who were affiliated to the former dynasty, had been organised as a chariot team.
He needed a kind of mass propaganda to justify the imperial violence against the public. In the kontakion "On earthquakes and conflagration" H. According to Johannes Koder the kontakion was celebrated the first time during Lenten period inabout ten months before the official inauguration of the new built Hagia Sophia on 27 December. During the second half of the sixth century, there was a change in Byzantine sacred architecturebecause the altar used for the preparation of the eucharist had been removed from the bema.
The separation of the prothesis where the bread was consecrated during a separated service called proskomiderequired a procession of the gifts at the beginning of the second eucharist part of the divine liturgy. With this change came also the Zig Zag Wanderer - Captain Beefheart And His Magic Band - Safe As Milk of the three doors in a choir screen before the bema sanctuary.
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