The Basilica of Guadalupelocated at the foot of the hill of Tepeyac, claims to possess Juan Diego's mantle or cloak known as a tilma on which an image of the Virgin is said to have been impressed by a miracle as a pledge of the authenticity of the apparitions.
These apparitions and the imparting of the miraculous image together known as the Guadalupe event, Spanish : el acontecimiento Guadalupano are the basis of the veneration of Our Lady of Guadalupewhich is ubiquitous in Mexico, prevalent throughout the Spanish-speaking Americas, and increasingly widespread beyond.
According to the sources identified below, Juan Diego was an Indian born in in Cuauhtitlan[e] and at the time of the apparitions he lived there or in Tolpetlac. It is variously reported a that after their baptism he and his wife were inspired by a sermon on chastity to live celibately; alternatively b that they lived celibately throughout their marriage; and in the further alternative c that both of them lived and died as virgins.
At least two 18th-century nuns claimed to be descended from Juan Diego. The date of death in his 74th year is given as The earliest notices of an apparition of the Virgin Mary Alabanza A Juan Diego - Various - Floklore Mexicain Tepeyac to an Indian are to be found in various annals which are regarded by Dr. After the annals, a number of publications arose: . No part of that work was available in Spanish until when, as part of the celebrations for the coronation of the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe in that year, there was published a translation of the Nican Mopohua dating from the 18th century.
This translation, however, was made from an incomplete copy of the original. Juan Diego, as a devout neophyte, was in the habit of regularly walking from his home to the Franciscan mission station at Tlatelolco for religious instruction and to perform his religious duties. His route passed by the My Peoples Gone - Howlin Wolf - Aint Gonna Be Your Dog at Tepeyac.
First apparition : at dawn on Saturday December 9, while on his usual journey, he encountered the Virgin Mary who Les Vraies Valeurs - Various - Street CD - 10 Ans herself as the ever-virgin Mother of God and instructed him to request the bishop to erect a chapel in her honour so that she might relieve the distress of all those who call on her in their need.
Second apparitionlater the same day: returning to Tepeyac, Juan Diego encountered the Virgin again and announced the failure of his mission, suggesting that because he was "a back-frame, a tail, a wing, a man of no importance" she would do better to recruit someone of greater standing, but she insisted that he was whom she wanted for the task. Juan Diego agreed to return to the bishop to repeat his request. This he did on the morning of Sunday, December 10 when he found the bishop more compliant.
The bishop, however, asked for a sign to prove that the apparition was truly of heaven. Third apparition : Juan Diego returned immediately to Tepeyac and, encountering the Virgin Mary reported the bishop's request for a sign; she condescended to provide one on the following day December In the very early hours of Tuesday, December 12, Juan Bernardino's condition having deteriorated overnight, Juan Diego set out to Tlatelolco to get a priest to hear Juan Bernardino's confession and minister to him on his death-bed.
Fourth apparition : in order to avoid being delayed by the Virgin and embarrassed at having failed to meet her on the Monday as agreed, Juan Diego chose another route around the hill, but the Virgin intercepted him and asked where he was going; Juan Diego explained what had happened and the Virgin gently chided him for not having had recourse to her. She assured him that Juan Bernardino had now recovered and she told him to climb the hill Skyrocket - Abaze - Skyrocket collect flowers growing there.
Obeying her, Juan Diego found an abundance of flowers unseasonably in bloom on the rocky outcrop where only cactus and scrub normally grew. Using his open mantle as a sack with the ends still tied around his neck he returned to the Virgin; she re-arranged the flowers and told him to Alabanza A Juan Diego - Various - Floklore Mexicain them to the bishop.
On gaining admission to the bishop in Mexico City later that day, Juan Diego opened his mantle, the flowers poured to the floor, and the bishop saw they had left on the mantle an imprint of the Virgin's image which he immediately venerated. Fifth apparition : the next day Juan Diego found his uncle fully recovered, as the Virgin had assured him, and Juan Bernardino recounted that he too had seen her, at his bed-side; that she had instructed him to inform the bishop of this apparition and of his miraculous cure; and that she had told him she desired to be known under the title of Guadalupe.
The bishop kept Juan Diego's mantle first in his private chapel and then in the church on public display where it attracted great attention. On December 26, a procession formed for taking the miraculous image back to Tepeyac where it was installed in a small hastily erected chapel.
In great distress, the Indians carried him before the Virgin's image and pleaded for his life. Alabanza A Juan Diego - Various - Floklore Mexicain the arrow being withdrawn, the victim made a full and immediate recovery.
The modern movement for the canonization of Juan Diego to be distinguished from the process for gaining official approval for the Guadalupe cult, which had begun in and was realized in  can be said to have arisen in earnest in during celebrations marking the five hundredth anniversary of the traditional date of his birth, [u] but it was not until January that the then Archbishop of Mexico, Cardinal Ernesto Corripio Ahumadanamed a Postulator to supervise and coordinate the inquiry, and initiated the formal process for canonization.
The diocesan inquiry was formally concluded in March and the decree opening the Roman stage of the process was obtained on April 7, When the decree of validity of the diocesan inquiry was given on January 9, permitting the cause to proceedthe candidate became officially "venerable".
The documentation known as the Positio or "position paper" was published inin which year all the bishops of Mexico petitioned the Holy See in support of the cause.
The process of beatification Alabanza A Juan Diego - Various - Floklore Mexicain completed in a ceremony presided over by Pope John Paul II at the Basilica of Guadalupe on May 6, when December 9 was declared as the feast day to be held annually in honor of the candidate for sainthood thereafter known as "Blessed Juan Diego Cuauthlatoatzin".
Notwithstanding the fact that the beatification was "equipollent",  the normal requirement is that at least one miracle must be attributable to the Alabanza A Juan Diego - Various - Floklore Mexicain of the candidate before the cause for canonization can be brought to completion.
His mother Esperanza, who witnessed the fall, invoked Juan Diego to save her son who had sustained severe injuries to his spinal column, neck and cranium including intra-cranial haemorrhage. A week later he was sufficiently recovered to be discharged. Next, the unanimous report of five medical consultors as to the gravity of the injuries, the likelihood of their proving fatal, the impracticability of any medical intervention to save the patient, his complete and lasting recovery, and their inability to ascribe it to any known process of healing was received, and approved by the Congregation in February From there the case was passed to theological consultors who examined the nexus between i the fall and the injuries, ii the mother's faith in and invocation of Blessed Juan Diego, and iii the recovery, inexplicable in medical terms.
Their unanimous approval was signified in May As not infrequently happens, the process for canonization in this case was subject to delays and obstacles of various kinds. In the instant case, certain interventions were initiated through unorthodox routes in early by a small group of ecclesiastics in Mexico then or formerly attached to the Basilica of Guadalupe pressing for a review of the sufficiency of the historical investigation.
The results of the review were presented to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints on October 28, which unanimously approved them. This served, however, only to intensify the protests of those who were attempting to delay or prevent the canonization, and the arguments over the quality of the scholarship displayed by the Encuentro were conducted first in private and then in public.
The authenticity of the Codex Escalada and the dating of the Nican Mopohua to the 16th or 17th century have a material bearing on the duration of the oral stage. The debate over the historicity of St. Juan Diego and, by extension, of the apparitions and the miraculous image, begins with a contemporary to Juan Diego, named Antonio Valeriano.
Valeriano was one of the best Indian scholars at the College of Santiago de Tlatelolco at the time that Juan Diego was alive; he was proficient Elevación - Tulio Enrique Leon - Rica Cumbia Spanish as well as Latin, and a native speaker of Nahuatl.
He knew Juan Diego personally  [ additional citation s needed ] and wrote his account of the apparitions on the basis of Juan Diego's Dont Care Who Knows (TMS Mix Feat.
Motley) - Keisha White - Dont Care Who Knows. There's no The Tears Of A Clown - Various - High Energy Volume 2 - The Dance Sound Of The 80s consensus as to who wrote these first pages. Burrus in the New York Public Library. The silence of the sources is discussed in a separate section, below. The most prolific contemporary protagonist in the debate is Stafford Alabanza A Juan Diego - Various - Floklore Mexicain a historian and Vincentian priest in the United States of America, who questioned the integrity and rigor of the historical investigation conducted by the Catholic Church in the interval between Juan Diego's beatification and his canonization.
For a brief period in mid a vigorous debate was ignited in Mexico when it emerged that Guillermo Schulenburg, who at that time was 80 years of age, did not believe that Juan Diego was a historical person or which follows from it that it is his mantle which is conserved and venerated at the Basilica.
That Outlaw Man - Eagles - Selected Works 1972-1999 (Box Set), however, was focused not so much on the weight to be accorded to the historical sources which attest to Juan Diego's existence as on the propriety of Abbot Schulenburg retaining an official position which — so it was objected — his advanced age, allegedly extravagant life-style and heterodox views disqualified him from holding.
Abbot Schulenburg's resignation announced on September 6, terminated Alabanza A Juan Diego - Various - Floklore Mexicain debate. Partly in response to these and other issues, the Congregation for the Causes of Saints the body within the Catholic Church with oversight of the process of approving candidates for sainthood reopened the historical phase of the investigation inand in November of that year declared itself satisfied with the results.
The first written account to be published of the Guadalupe event was a theological exegesis hailing Mexico as the New Jerusalem and correlating Juan Diego with Moses at Mount Horeb and the Virgin with the mysterious Woman of the Apocalypse in chapter 12 of the Book of Revelation.
The book is structured as a theological examination of the meaning of the apparitions to which is added a description of the tilma and of the sanctuary, accompanied by a description of seven miracles associated with the cult, the last of which related to a devastating inundation of Mexico City in the years — Although the work inspired panegyrical sermons preached in honour of the Virgin of Guadalupe between andit was not popular and was rarely reprinted.
It was published in Nahuatl by the then vicar of the hermitage at Guadalupe, Luis Lasso de la Vegain In four places in the introduction, he announced his authorship Linda Porteña - Various - Pacífico Colombiano all or part of the text, a claim long received with varying degrees of incredulity because of the text's consummate grasp of a form of classical Nahuatl dating from the midth century, the command of which Lasso de la Vega neither before nor after left any sign.
Whether the role to be attributed to Lasso de la Vega was creative, editorial or redactional remains an open question. The third work to be published was written by Luis Becerra Tanco who professed to correct some errors in the two previous accounts. A revised and expanded edition of the pamphlet drawing more obviously on the Nican Mopohua was published posthumously in as Felicidad de Mexico and again in in SevilleSpain.
As its name indicates, it is a collection of sworn testimonies. These were taken down in order to support an application to Rome for liturgical recognition of the Guadalupe event. Until very recently the only source for the text was a copy dating from of the translation made into Spanish which itself was first published in This was published in Mexico in and then in Barcelona and MadridSpain, in andrespectively.
Accordingly, his account of the apparitions follows that of Mateo de la Cruz's abridgement. Despite references in near-contemporary sources which do attest a midth-century Marian cult attached to a miraculous image of the Virgin at a shrine at Tepeyac under the title of Our Lady of Guadalupeand despite the weight of oral tradition concerning Juan Diego and the apparitions which, at the most, spans less than four generations before being reduced to writingthe fundamental objection of this silence of core 16th-century sources remains a perplexing feature of the history of the cult which has, nevertheless, continued to grow outside Mexico and the Americas.
The first writer to address this problem of the silence of the sources was Francisco de Florencia in chapter 12 of his book Estrella de el norte de Mexico see previous section. Substantially the same argument was publicized in updated form at the end of the 19th and 20th centuries in reaction to renewed steps taken by the ecclesiastical authorities to defend and promote the cult through the coronation of the Virgin in and the beatification of Juan Diego in Despite the accumulation of evidence by the start of the 17th century including allusions to the apparitions and the miraculous origin of the image[ai]  the phenomenon of silence Alabanza A Juan Diego - Various - Floklore Mexicain the sources persists well into the second decade of that century, by which time the silence ceases to be prima facie evidence that there was no tradition of the Guadalupe event before the publication of the first narrative account of it in Period i extends from the date of the alleged apparitions down toby which date there first emerges clear evidence of a Marian cult a located in an already existing ermita or oratory at Tepeyac, b known under the name Guadalupe, c focussed on a painting, and d believed to be productive of miracles especially miracles of healing.
In the circumstances, it is not surprising that a cult at Tepeyac whatever its nature should have fallen into abeyance. Nor is it a matter for surprise that a cult failed to spring up around Juan Diego's tomb at this time. Francis, and to the Conceptionist convent all in Mexico City ; divided his books between the library of the monastery of St Francis in Mexico City and the guesthouse of a monastery in his home-town of DurangoSpain; freed his slaves and disposed of his horses and mules; made some small bequests of corn and money; and gave substantial bequests in favour of two charitable institutions founded by him, one in Mexico City and one in Veracruz.
Leading Franciscans were notoriously hostile to — or at best suspicious of — Guadalupe throughout the second half of the 16th century precisely on the grounds of practices arguably syncretic or worse. In this period, three Franciscan friars among others were writing histories of New Spain and of the peoples and their cultures who either submitted to or were defeated by the Spanish Znanec Jazbec - Svetlana Makarovič - Čuk Na Palici. X, cap.
The themes of Counter-reformation Catholicism were strenuously promoted by the Jesuits, who enthusiastically took up the cult of Guadalupe in Mexico. The basis of the Franciscans' disquiet and even hostility to Guadalupe was their fear that the evangelization of the Indians had been superficial, that the Indians had retained some of their pre-Christian beliefs, and, in the worst case, that Christian baptism was a cloak for persisting in pre-Christian devotions. There was no uniform approach to the problem and some Franciscans were less reticent than others.
Mendieta also drew attention to the Indians' subterfuge of concealing pre-Christian cult objects inside or behind Christian statues and crucifixes in order to mask the true focus of their devotion. Only when very particular conditions obtain can legitimate inferences be drawn from silence in contemporary sources. In the beginning when the Christian faith had just arrived here in the land that today is called New Spain, in many ways the heavenly lady, the consummate Virgin Saint Mary, cherished, aided and defended the local people so that they might entirely give themselves and adhere to the faith.
The continuing importance of this theme was emphasised in the years leading up to the canonization of Juan Diego. It received further impetus in the Pastoral Letter issued by Cardinal Rivera in February on the eve of the canonization, and was asserted by John Paul II in his homily at the canonization ceremony itself when he called Juan Diego "a model of evangelization perfectly inculturated" — an allusion to the implantation of the Catholic Church within indigenous culture through the medium of the Guadalupe event.
By contrast, the words of the Virgin's initial message as reported in Nican Mopohua are, in terms, specific to all residents of New Spain without distinction, while including others, too: . I am the Rock The Bells - LL Cool J / Beastie Boys - Double Def 12 mother of you and of all you people here in this land, and of the other various peoples who love me, who cry out to me.
The special but not exclusive favour of the Virgin to the indigenous peoples is highlighted in Lasso de la Vega's introduction: . At the conclusion of the miracle cycle in the Nican Mopectanathere is a broad summary which embraces the different elements in the emergent new society "the local people and the Spaniards [Caxtilteca] and all Alabanza A Juan Diego - Various - Floklore Mexicain different peoples who called on and followed her".
The role of Juan Diego as both representing and confirming the human dignity of the indigenous Indian populations and of asserting their right to claim a place of honour in the New World is therefore embedded in the earliest narratives, nor did it thereafter become dormant awaiting rediscovery in the 20th century.
Archbishop Lorenzana, in a sermon ofapplauded the evident fact that the Virgin signified honour to the Spaniards by stipulating for the title "Guadalupe"to the Indians by choosing Juan Diegoand to those of mixed race by the colour of her face. In another place in the sermon he noted a figure of eight on the Virgin's robe and said it represented the two worlds that she was protecting the old and the new. To the spiritual and social significance of Juan Diego within the Guadalupe event, there can be added a third aspect which has only recently begun to receive explicit recognition, although it is implicit in the two aspects already discussed: namely, the rights of indigenous people to have their cultural traditions and way of life honoured and protected against encroachment.
In Alabanza A Juan Diego - Various - Floklore Mexicain process of industrial and economic development that was observable in many regions of the world after the Second World War, the rights of indigenous peoples to their land and to the unobstructed expression of their language, culture and traditions came under pressure or were, at best, ignored. Industrialization led by the petroleum industry made the problem as acute in Alabanza A Juan Diego - Various - Floklore Mexicain as elsewhere.
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