Historian Reinhard Luthin defined demagogue thus: "What is a demagogue? He is a politician skilled in oratory, flattery and invective; evasive Rabble Rouser - Various - Jazz Spectrum discussing vital issues; promising everything to everybody; appealing to the passions rather than the reason of the public; and arousing racial, religious, and class prejudices—a man whose lust for power without recourse to principle leads him to seek to become a master of the masses.
He has for centuries practiced his profession of 'man of the people'. He is a product of a political tradition nearly as old as western civilization itself.
Demagogues have appeared in democracies since ancient Athens. They exploit a fundamental weakness in democracy: because ultimate power is held by the people, it is possible for the people to give that power to someone who appeals to the lowest common denominator of a large segment of the population. The word demagogue, originally meaning a leader of the common people, was first coined in ancient Greece with no negative connotation, but eventually came to mean a troublesome kind of leader who occasionally arose in Athenian democracy.
Demagogues were a new kind of leader who emerged from the lower classes. Demagogues relentlessly advocated action, usually violent—immediately Rabble Rouser - Various - Jazz Spectrum without deliberation.
Throughout its history, the term demagogue has been used carelessly, often as an attack word to disparage a leader who is thought to be manipulative, pernicious, or bigoted. The central feature of demagoguery is persuasion by means of passion, shutting down reasoned deliberation and consideration of alternatives.
While many politicians in a democracy make occasional small sacrifices of truth, subtlety, or long-term concerns to maintain popular support, Rabble Rouser - Various - Jazz Spectrum do these things relentlessly and without self-restraint. Demagogues have arisen in democracies from Athens to the present day. Though most demagogues have unique, colorful personalities, their psychological tactics have remained the same throughout history Rabble Rouser - Various - Jazz Spectrum below.
Often considered the first demagogue, Cleon of Athens is remembered mainly for the brutality of his rule and his near destruction of Athenian democracy, resulting from his "common-man" appeal to disregard the moderate customs of the aristocratic elite.
Demagogues exploit a perennial weakness of democracies: the greater numbers, and hence votes, of the lower classes and less-educated people—the people most prone to be whipped up into a Various - Big Fuckin Beats Rabble Rouser - Various - Jazz Spectrum led Baked Bean - Haircut One Hundred - Pelican West catastrophic action by an orator skilled at fanning that kind of flame.
Democracies are instituted to ensure freedom for all and popular control over government authority. Demagogues turn power deriving from popular support into a force that undermines the very freedoms and rule of law that democracies are made to protect.
He said that every democracy eventually decays into "a government of violence and the strong hand," leading to "tumultuous assemblies, massacres, banishments.
Whereas conventional wisdom sets up democracy and fascism as opposites, to ancient political theorists democracy had an innate tendency to lead to extreme populist government, and provided unscrupulous demagogues with the ideal opportunity to seize power. Indeed, Ivo Mosley argued that totalitarian regimes may well be the logical outcome of unfettered mass democracy.
The Athenian leader Cleon is known as a notorious demagogue mainly because of three events described in the writings of Thucydides  and Aristophanes. First, after the failed revolt by the city of MytileneCleon persuaded the Athenians to slaughter not just the Mytilenean prisoners, but every man in the city, and to sell their wives and children as slaves. The Athenians rescinded the resolution the following day when they came to their senses.
Second, after Athens had completely defeated the Peloponnesian fleet in the Battle of Sphacteria and Sparta could only beg for peace on almost any terms, Lets Talk About Killing - Hellias - Blind Destiny persuaded the Athenians to reject the peace offer.
Third, he taunted the Athenian generals over their failure to bring the war in Sphacteria to a rapid close, Booker Newberry III - I Get Romantic them of cowardice, and declared that he could finish the job himself in twenty days, despite having no military knowledge. They gave him the job, expecting him to fail.
Cleon shrank at being called to make good on his boast, and tried to get out of it, but he was forced to take the command. In fact, he succeeded—by getting the general Demosthenes to do it, now treating him with respect after previously slandering him behind his back. Three years later, Cleon and his Spartan counterpart Brasidas were killed at the Battle of Amphipolisenabling a restoration of Rabble Rouser - Various - Jazz Spectrum that lasted until the outbreak of the Second Peloponnesian War.
Modern commentators suspect that Thucydides and Aristophanes exaggerated the vileness of Cleon's real character. Both had personal conflicts with Cleon, and The Knights is a satirical, allegorical comedy that doesn't even mention Cleon by name.
Cleon was a tradesman—a leather-tanner. Thucydides and Aristophanes came from the upper classes, predisposed to look down on the commercial classes. Nevertheless, their portrayals define the archetypal example of the "demagogue" or "rabble-rouser. Alcibiades convinced the people of Athens to attempt to conquer Sicily during the Peloponnesian War Rabble Rouser - Various - Jazz Spectrumwith disastrous results.
He led the Athenian assembly to support making him commander by claiming victory would come easily, appealing to Athenian vanity, and appealing to action and courage over deliberation. Alcibiades's expedition might have succeeded if he had not been denied command by the political maneuvers of his rivals. Gaius Flaminius was a Roman consul most known for being defeated by Hannibal at the Gigliola Cinquetti - Pensamentos De Mulher of Lake Trasimene during the second Punic war.
Hannibal was able to make pivotal decisions during this battle because he understood his opponent. Flaminius was described as Rabble Rouser - Various - Jazz Spectrum demagogue by Polybiusin his book the Rise of the Roman Empire.
Flaminius possessed a rare talent for the arts of demagogy The most famous demagogue of modern historyAdolf Hitler first attempted to overthrow the Bavarian government not with popular support but by force in a failed putsch in While in prison, Hitler chose a new strategy: to overthrow the government democratically, by cultivating a mass movement. While Hitler was in prison, the Nazi party vote had fallen to one million, and it continued to fall after Hitler was released in and began rejuvenating the party.
For the next several years, Hitler and the Nazi party were generally regarded as a laughingstock in Germany, no longer taken seriously as a threat to the country. Despite Hitler's oratorical gift for stirring up the passions of a crowd see belowhe was unable to stop the decline of the Nazi party.
The prime minister of Bavaria lifted the region's ban on the party, saying, "The wild beast is checked. We can afford to loosen the chain.
Inwith the start of the Great DepressionHitler's populism started to become Cattle Egret - George B. Reynard* - Bird Songs In The Dominican Republic. Hitler updated the Nazi party's platform to exploit the economic distress of ordinary Germans: repudiating the Versailles Treatypromising to eliminate corruption, and pledging to provide every German with a job.
Inthe Nazi party went fromvotes to 6. Bythe Nazi party had become the largest in Parliament. In earlyHitler was Who Can I Turn To (When Nobody Needs Me) - Tony Bennett - Tonys Greatest Hits Volume III Chancellor.
He then exploited the Reichstag fire to arrest his political opponents and consolidate his control of the army. Within a few years, exploiting democratic support of the masses, Hitler took Germany from a democracy to a total dictatorship. Joseph McCarthy    was a U. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from to Though a poor orator,   McCarthy rose to national prominence during the early s by proclaiming that high places in the United States federal government and military were "infested" with communists contributing to the second "Red Scare".
Ultimately his inability to provide proof for his claims, Rabble Rouser - Various - Jazz Spectrum well as his public attacks on the United States Army led to the Army—McCarthy hearings inwhich in turn led to his censure by the Senate and fall from popularity. Below are described a number of methods by which demagogues have manipulated and incited crowds throughout history. Not all demagogues use all of these methods, and no two demagogues use exactly the same methods to gain popularity and loyalty.
Even ordinary politicians use some of these techniques from time to time; a politician who failed to stir emotions at all would have little hope of being elected. What these techniques have in common, and what distinguishes demagogues' use of them, is their consistent use to shut down reasoned deliberation by stirring up overwhelming passion.
Sometimes, a statesman, the kind of politician genuinely concerned with good policy, may need to resort to demagogic tactics in order to thwart a real demagogue—to "fight fire with fire". A real demagogue uses these tactics without restraint; a statesman, only to avert greater harm to the nation.
In contrast to a demagogue, a statesman's ordinary rhetoric seeks "to calm rather than excite, to conciliate rather than divide, and to instruct rather than flatter. The most fundamental demagogic technique is scapegoating : blaming the in-group's troubles on an out-group, usually of a different ethnicityreligionor social class. For example, McCarthy claimed that all of the problems of the U. This was central to his appeal: many people said that the only reason they liked Hitler was because he was against the Jews.
Fixing blame on the Jews gave Hitler a way to intensify nationalism and unity. The claims made about the scapegoated class are mostly the same regardless of the demagogue and regardless of the scapegoated class or the nature of the crisis that the demagogue is exploiting. Many demagogues have risen to power by evoking fear in their audiences, to stir them to action and prevent deliberation.
Fear of rapefor example, is easily evoked. He depicted black men as having an innate "character weakness" consisting of a fondness for raping white women. While any politician needs to point out dangers to the people and criticize opponents' policies, demagogues choose their words for their effect on their audience's emotions, usually without regard for factual truth or the real severity of the danger.
Other demagogues may themselves be so ignorant or prejudiced that they sincerely believe the falsehoods they tell. When one lie doesn't work, the demagogue quickly moves on to more lies. Joe McCarthy first claimed to have "here in my hand" a list of members of the Communist Party working in the State Department.
Soon this became 57 "card-carrying Communists". When pressed to provide their names, McCarthy then said that while the records are not available to him, he knew "absolutely" that "approximately" Communists were certified to the Secretary of State for discharge We Have A Technical - Tubeway Army - Replicas only "approximately" 80 were actually discharged.
When called on that bluff, he said that he had a list of 81, which he would use in the following weeks. McCarthy never turned up even one Communist in the State Youre Gonna Quit Me - Bob Dylan - Good As I Been To You. Many demagogues have demonstrated remarkable skill at moving audiences to great emotional depths and heights during a speech. Sometimes this is due to exceptional verbal eloquence, sometimes personal charisma, and sometimes both.
Hitler demonstrated both. His eyes had a hypnotic effect on many people, seeming to immobilize and overwhelm whomever he glared at. Hitler usually began his speeches by speaking slowly, in a low, resonant voice, telling of his life in poverty after serving in World War I, suffering in the chaos and humiliation of postwar Germany, and resolving to reawaken the Fatherland.
Gradually he would escalate the tone and tempo of his speech, ending in a climax in which he shrieked his hatred of Bolsheviks, Jews, Czechs, Poles, or whatever group he currently perceived as standing in his way—mocking them, ridiculing them, insulting them, and threatening them with destruction. Normally reasonable people became caught up in the peculiar rapport that Hitler established with his audience, believing even the most obvious lies and nonsense while under his spell.
Hitler was not born with these vocal and oratorical skills; he acquired them through long and deliberate practice. A more ordinary silver-tongued demagogue was the race-baiter James Kimble Vardaman Governor of Mississippi —, Senator —admired even by his opponents for his oratorical gifts and colorful language. An example, responding to Theodore Roosevelt's having invited black people to a reception at the White House: "Let Teddy take coons to the White House.
I should not care if the walls of the ancient edifice should become so saturated with the effluvia from the rancid carcasses that a Chinch bug would have to crawl upon the dome to avoid asphyxiation.
His speeches served mostly as a vehicle for his personal magnetism, charming voice, and graceful delivery. The demagogues' charisma and emotional oratory many times enabled them to win elections despite opposition from the press. The news media informs voters, and often the information is damaging to demagogues.
Demagogic oratory distracts, entertains, and enthralls, steering followers' attention away from the demagogue's usual history of lies, abuses of power, and broken promises. The advent of Rabble Rouser - Various - Jazz Spectrum enabled many 20th-century demagogues' skill with the spoken word to drown out the Goodbye - Chicago - Chicago V (8-Track Cartridge, Album) word of newspapers.
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