Ethnic cleansing in the Soviet Union. Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious or national group. The term was coined in by Raphael Lemkin. It is defined in Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide CPPCG of as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole Holocaustic Ritual 3 - Toxemia - Holocaustic Ritual 3 in part, a nationalethnicalracial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the groups conditions of life, calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
The preamble to the CPPCG states that "genocide is a crime under international lawcontrary to the spirit and aims of the United Nations and condemned by the civilized world" and that "at all periods of history genocide has inflicted great losses on humanity. Determining what historical events constitute a Holocaustic Ritual 3 - Toxemia - Holocaustic Ritual 3 and which are merely criminal or inhuman behavior is not a clear-cut matter.
In nearly every Holocaustic Ritual 3 - Toxemia - Holocaustic Ritual 3 where accusations of genocide have circulated, partisans of various sides have fiercely disputed the details and interpretation of the event, often to the point of depicting wildly different versions of the facts. The debate continues over what legally constitutes genocide. One definition is any conflict that the International Criminal Court has so designated.
Many conflicts that have been labeled genocide in the popular press have not been so designated. Hassan Kakar  argued that the definition should include political groups or Holocaustic Ritual 3 - Toxemia - Holocaustic Ritual 3 group so defined by the perpetrator. He prefers the definition from Chalk and Jonassohn: "Genocide is a form of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority intends to destroy a group so defined by the perpetrator.
Some critics [ who? According to R. Rummelgenocide has multiple meanings. The ordinary meaning is murder by a government of people due to their national, ethnic, racial, or religious group membership.
The legal meaning is defined by CCPG. This includes actions such as preventing births or forcibly transferring children to another group. Rummel created the term democide to include assaults on political groups. In this article, atrocities that have been characterized as genocide by some reliable source are included, whether or not this is supported by mainstream scholarship. Thus examples listed may constitute genocide by the United Nations definition, or by one of the alternate interpretations.
According to Canadian scholar Adam Jonesif a dominant group of people has little in common with a marginalized group of people, it is easy for the dominant group to define the other as subhuman. As a result, the marginalized group might be labeled as a threat that must be eliminated. While history today is generally written with some fealty to 'objective' facts, most previous accounts aimed rather to praise the writer's patron normally the leader and to emphasize the superiority of one's own gods and religious beliefs.
Chalk and Jonassohn: "Historically and anthropologically peoples have always had a name for themselves. In a great many cases, that name meant 'the people' to set the owners of that name off against all other people who were considered of lesser quality in some way.
If the differences between the people and some other society were particularly large in terms of religion, language, manners, Michelle - The Singers Unlimited - A Capella, and so on, then such others were seen as less than fully human: pagans, savages, or even animals.
Hypotheses which suggest that genocidal violence may have caused the extinction of the Neanderthals have been offered by several authors, including Jared Diamond  and Ronald Wright. Genocide was the norm in the form of warfare that was waged by chiefdoms. The outcome, if it was decisive, was the total annihilation of the vanquished side. Scholars of antiquity differentiate genocide from gendercidein which groups of people were conquered and the males who belonged to the conquered groups were killed but the children particularly girls and women were incorporated into the conquering groups.
Jones notes, "Chalk and Jonassohn provide a wide-ranging selection of historical events such as the Assyrian Empire 's root-and branch depredations in the first half of the first millennium BCE, and the destruction of Melos by Athens during the Peloponnesian War fifth century BCEa gendercidal rampage described by Thucydides in his ' Melian Dialogue ' ". The Book of Numbers chapter 31 recounts that an army of Israelites killed every Midianite man but captured the women and children as plunder.
These were later killed at the command of Moses, with the exception of girls who were virgins. The total number killed is not recorded but the number of surviving girls is recorded by the Book of Numbers as 32, These two accounts are in accord with chiefdom-level warfare as it is described by Anthropologist Robert Carneiro.
This action provoked the Romans leading to the First Mithridatic War. A study suggests that a group of Anasazi in the American Southwest were killed in a genocide that took place circa CE. Quoting Eric MargolisJones observes that in the 13th century the Mongol armies under Genghis Khan were genocidal killers  who were known to eradicate whole nations.
In the end, half of the Holocaustic Ritual 3 - Toxemia - Holocaustic Ritual 3 tribes were exterminated by Genghis Khan. Similarly, the Turko-Mongol conqueror Tamerlane was known for his extreme brutality and his conquests were accompanied by genocidal massacres.
Impartially, however, Tamerlane also slaughtered Shi'ite Muslims, Jews and heathens. The Jie were an ethnic group with racial characteristics of high-bridged noses and bushy beards were easily identified and killed; in total,were reportedly massacred.
From tothe Congo Free State in central Africa was privately controlled by Leopold II of Belgiumwho extracted a fortune from the land by the use of forced labor of natives. Under his regime, there were 2 to Usne - Saša Lozar - 1 Dan million deaths among the Congolese people. As in the colonization of the Americas, European diseases, hitherto unknown in the region, also led to a considerable number of deaths.
Because the main motive for the killings was financial gain, it has been debated whether the term genocide describes these atrocities well; however, Robert Weisbord wrote in the Journal of Genocide Research in that attempting to eliminate a portion of the population is enough to qualify as genocide under the UN convention.
During its military conquest, centralization and incorporation of territories into Ethiopia as decreed by Menelik IIhis army carried out genocidal Holocaustic Ritual 3 - Toxemia - Holocaustic Ritual 3  atrocities against civilians and combatants including tortureRimba - TAppartengo (Special Dance Remix) killings and the imposition of large scale slavery.
These deaths may have also been caused by the great famine of towhich was the worst famine in the region's history; a third of Ethiopia's total population of 12 million was killed according to some estimates.
The population of native cattle had no prior exposure to the disease and as a result, it was unable to fight it off. In the intervening period, military tactics had not changed much.
In the 16th century the Portuguese Bermudes documented depopulation and widespread atrocities against civilians and combatants including torture, mass killings and the imposition of large scale slavery during several successive Aba Gedas' Gadaa conquests of territories which were located north of the Genale river BaliAmharaGafatDamotAdal. Centralization greatly reduced these continuous wars; minimizing the loss of lives, raids, destruction and slavery that had previously been the norm.
Ben Kiernan wrote in his book Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur on the French conquest of Algeriathat within 3 decades of the French conquest of Algeria inwar, famine and disease [ citation needed ] had reduced the original population from 3 million by a figure ranging fromto 1, The war had killed approximatelyindigenous Algerians since A long shadow of genocidal hatred persisted, provoking the French author to protest in that in Algeria, "we hear it repeated every day that we Holocaustic Ritual 3 - Toxemia - Holocaustic Ritual 3 expel the native and if necessary destroy him.
The Herero and Namaqua peoples of present-day Namibia endured a genocidal persecution between and while their homeland was under colonial rule as German South West Africa.
An estimated 10, Namaqua were killed,  with estimates for the Herero ranging from 60, andThe order states "every Herero, with or without a gun, with or without cattle, will be shot. I will no longer accept women or children, I will drive them back to their people [to die in the desert] or let them be shot at. Between andthe Zulu kingdom under Shaka Zulu laid waste to large parts of present-day South Africa and Zimbabwe.
Zulu armies often aimed not only at defeating enemies but at their total destruction. Those exterminated included prisoners of war, women, children and even dogs.
According to historian David Stannardover the course of more Eve Gallagher - Woman Can Have It four centuries "from the s into the s, Europeans and white Americans engaged in an unbroken string of genocide campaigns against the native peoples of the Americas.
He calls it "the worst human holocaust the world had ever witnessed", and it leveled off because "there was, at last, almost no one left to kill. Balboa slaid hundreds in Caribbean Holocaustic Ritual 3 - Toxemia - Holocaustic Ritual 3 . The crown later withdrew support and Balboa was executed in He described slavery as "cultural genocide par excellence" noting "it is the most effective and thorough method of destroying culture, of desocializing human beings.
He also notes the sexual abuse of Spanish colonizers of Native women as acts of "biological genocide. The fires that consumed North America Indians were the fevers brought on by newly encountered diseases, the flashes of settlers' and soldiers' guns, the ravages of "firewater," the flames of villages and fields burned by the scorched-earth policy of vengeful Euro-Americans.
Some historians disagree that genocide, defined as a crime of intent, should be used to describe the colonization experience. Stafford Poolea research historian, wrote: "There are other terms to describe what happened Sunrise - Uriah Heep - The Magicians Birthday the Western Hemisphere, but genocide is not one of them.
It is a good propaganda term in an age where slogans and shouting have replaced reflection and learning, but to use it in this context is to cheapen both the word itself and the appalling experiences of the Jews and Armeniansto mention but two of the major victims of this century. In doing so they refuse to accept that the colonization of America was genocidal by plan, not simply the tragic fate of populations lacking immunity to disease.
In the case of the Jewish Holocaust, no one denies that more Jews died of starvation, overwork, and disease under Nazi incarceration than died in gas ovens, yet the acts of creating and maintaining the conditions that led to those deaths clearly constitute genocide.
Several works Holocaustic Ritual 3 - Toxemia - Holocaustic Ritual 3 the subject were released around the year to coincide with the th anniversary of Columbus' voyage.
Chavez blamed Columbus for spearheading "the biggest invasion and genocide ever seen in the history of humanity. The colonization of the Americas killed so many people it contributed to climate change and global coolingaccording to scientists from University College London. The Conquest of the Desert was a military campaign mainly directed by General Julio Argentino Roca in the s, which established Argentine dominance over Patagoniathen inhabited by indigenous peopleskilling more than 1, Contemporary sources indicate that it was a deliberate genocide by the Argentine government.
The Indian First Nation residential schools were primarily active following the passage of the Indian Act inuntiland were designed to remove Holocaustic Ritual 3 - Toxemia - Holocaustic Ritual 3 from the influence of their families and culture, and assimilate them into the dominant Canadian culture. There is something dramatically and basically wrong with that. Jean-Jacques Dessalinesthe first ruler of an independent Haitiordered the Londonbeat - In The Blood of the white population of French creoles on Haiti, which culminated in the Haiti massacre.
According to Philippe Girard, "when the genocide was over, Haiti's white population was virtually non-existent. Adam Jones wrote: "Genocidal atrocities on both sides cost up tokilled. The State of Sonora then offered a bounty on Apache scalps in Beginning inthe State of Chihuahua also offered a bounty of pesos per warrior, 50 pesos per woman and 25 pesos per child.
The Mexican government's response to the various uprisings of the Yaqui tribe have been likened to genocide particularly under Porfirio Diaz.
Mexican president Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador said he'd be willing to offer apologies for the abuses in The Beothuks attempted to avoid contact with Europeans in Newfoundland by moving from their traditional settlements. John's, where she had been taken. Native American Studies professor Roxanne Holocaustic Ritual 3 - Toxemia - Holocaustic Ritual 3 states that US history, as well as inherited Indigenous trauma, cannot be understood without dealing with the genocide that the United States Holocaustic Ritual 3 - Toxemia - Holocaustic Ritual 3 against Indigenous peoples.
From the colonial period through the founding of the United States and continuing in the twentieth century, this has entailed torture, terror, sexual abuse, massacres, systematic military Round Midnight - Thelonious Monk Quartet* - Misterioso, removals of Indigenous peoples from their ancestral territories, forced removal of Native American children to military-like boarding schools, allotment, and a policy of termination.
InBritish militia's William Trent and Simeon Ecuyer gave smallpox -exposed blankets to Native American emissaries as gifts at Siege of Fort Pitt"to Convey the Smallpox to the Indians", in one of the most famously documented cases of germ warfare. While it is uncertain how successful such attempts were against the target population,  historians have noted that, "history records numerous instances of the French, the Spanish, the British, and later on the American, using smallpox as an ignoble means to an end.
For smallpox was more feared by the Indian than the bullet: he could be exterminated and subjugated more easily and quickly by the death-bringing virus than by the weapons of the white man.
During the American Indian Warsthe United States Army carried out a number of massacres and forced relocations of Indigenous peoples, acts that some scholars say constitute genocide. The Sand Creek Massacrewhich caused outrage in its own time, has been called genocide. General John Chivington led a man force of Colorado Territory militia in a massacre of 70— peaceful Cheyenne and Arapahoabout two-thirds of whom were women, children, and infants.
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