It Introduction - Claudio Monteverdi / Orchester Der Tonhalle Zürich / Walter Goehr - Monteverdi The Co Monteverdi's last opera, with a libretto by Giovanni Francesco Busenelloand was first performed at the Teatro Santi Promenade Anglais - Robb Johnson - Bah! Humbug! 13 e Paolo in Venice during the carnival season. One of the first operas to use historical events and people, it describes how Poppaeamistress of the Roman emperor Nerois able to achieve her ambition and be crowned empress.
The opera was revived in Naples inbut was then neglected until the rediscovery of the score inafter which it became the subject of scholarly attention in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Since the s, the opera has been performed and recorded many times. The original manuscript of the score does not exist; two surviving copies from the s show significant differences from each other, and each differs to some extent from the libretto. How much of the music is actually Monteverdi's, and how much the product of others, is Aint She Sweet - Jimmy Smith - Plays Fats Waller matter of dispute.
None of the existing versions of the libretto, printed or manuscript, can be definitively tied to the first performance at the Teatro Santi Giovanni e Paolo, the precise date of which is unknown. Details of the original cast are few and largely speculative, and there is no record of the opera's initial public reception.
Despite these uncertainties, the work is generally accepted as part of the Monteverdi operatic canon, his last and perhaps his greatest work. In a departure from traditional literary morality, it is the adulterous liaison of Poppea and Nerone which wins the day, although this The Celts - Enya - Enya is demonstrated by history to have been transitory and hollow.
In Busenello's version of the story all the major characters are morally compromised. Written when the genre of opera was only a few decades old, the music for L'incoronazione di Poppea has been praised for its originality, its melody, and for its reflection of the human attributes of its characters. The work helped to redefine the boundaries of theatrical music and established Monteverdi as the leading musical dramatist of his time. Opera as a dramatic genre originated around the turn of the 17th century, although the word itself was not in use before Precursors of musical drama included pastoral plays with songs and choruses, and the madrigal comedies of the late 16th century.
After a disagreement in with Vincenzo's successor, Duke Francesco GonzagaMonteverdi moved to Venice to take up the position of director of music at St Mark's Basilicawhere he remained until his death in Amid his official duties at Venice, Monteverdi maintained an interest in theatrical music and produced several stage works, including the substantial Il combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda The battle of Tancred and Clorinda for the —25 carnival.
He may have been influenced by the solicitations of Giacomo Badoaroan aristocratic poet and intellectual who sent the elderly composer the libretto for Il ritorno d'Ulisse in Flight Of The Flutterflies - t h i e f - Expedition The return of Ulysses.
For the following season he wrote Le nozze d'Enea in Lavinia The marriage of Aeneas to Lavinianow lost, which was Irreversible - The Exies - Inertia at the third of Venice's new opera theatres, Teatro Santi Giovanni e Paulo. Another wealthy poet-librettist in the Venice milieu was Giovanni Francesco Busenello —like Badoaro a member of the intellectual society Accademia Introduction - Claudio Monteverdi / Orchester Der Tonhalle Zürich / Walter Goehr - Monteverdi The Co Incogniti.
This group of free-thinking intellectuals had significant influence on the cultural and political life of Venice in the midth century, and was particularly active in the promotion of musical theatre. It is unclear how and when Busenello met Monteverdi, though both had served in the Gonzaga court. Ringer speculates that they drew joint inspiration Somethings In The Air - The Velvet Monkeys - Rake their experiences of the Gonzaga style of rule, "a mixture of artistic cultivation and brutality", and thus developed a shared artistic vision.
The main sources for the story told in Busenello's libretto are the Annals of Tacitus ; book 6 of Suetonius 's history The Twelve Caesars ; books 61—62 of Dio Cassius 's Roman History ; and an anonymous play Octavia once attributed to the real life Senecafrom which the opera's fictional nurse characters were derived.
He was open about his intention to adapt history for his own purposes, writing in the preface to his libretto that "here we represent these actions differently.
The libretto has survived in numerous forms—two printed versions, seven manuscript versions or fragments, and an anonymous scenarioor summary, related to the original production. The manuscripts are all from the 17th century, though not all are specifically dated; some are "literary" versions unrelated to performances. The most significant of the manuscript copies is that discovered in UdineNorthern Italy, in by Monteverdi scholar Paolo Fabbri.
This manuscript, according to music historian Ellen Rosand"bristles with the immediacy of a performance", and is the only copy of the libretto that mentions Monteverdi by name. This, and other descriptive details missing from other copies, leads Rosand to speculate that the manuscript was copied during the course of a performance. This impression is reinforced, she says, by the inclusion of a paean of praise to the singer Anna di Valerio according to Schneider  who played the role of Poppea.
Although its dating is uncertain, the manuscript's affinity with the original scenario has led to speculation that the Udine version may have been compiled from the first performance.
Two versions of the musical score of L'incoronazione exist, both from the s. The first was rediscovered in Venice inthe second in Naples in The Naples score is linked to the revival of the opera in that city in Both scores contain essentially the same music, though each differs from the printed libretto and has unique additions and omissions.
In each score the vocal lines are shown with basso continuo accompaniment; the instrumental sections are written in three parts in the Venice score, four parts in the Naples version, without in either case specifying the instruments. Conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt Something In My Eye - Corduroy - London, England, a leading Monteverdi interpreter, refers to the contemporary practice of leaving much of a score open, to allow for differing local performance conditions.
Another convention made it unnecessary to write down detail that performers would take for granted. Neither Venice nor Naples score can be linked to the original performance; although the Venice version is generally regarded as the more authentic, modern productions tend to use material from both. The question of authorship—essentially of how much of the music is Monteverdi's—is a contentious one, which Rosand acknowledges might never be entirely resolved.
Virtually none of the contemporary documentation mentions Monteverdi, and music by other composers has been identified in the scores, including passages found in the score of Francesco Sacrati 's opera La finta pazza. A particular style of metric notation used in some Barry White - Come On In Love of the L'incoronazione scores suggests the work of younger composers.
The most debated areas Introduction - Claudio Monteverdi / Orchester Der Tonhalle Zürich / Walter Goehr - Monteverdi The Co authorship are parts of the prologue, Ottone's music, the flirtation scene between Valetto and Damigella, and the coronation scene including the final "Pur ti miro" duet. Modern scholarship inclines to the view that L'incoronazione was the result of collaboration between Monteverdi and others, with the old composer playing a guiding role.
The American musical analyst Eric Chafe's study of Monteverdi's tonal language supports the collaboration Introduction - Claudio Monteverdi / Orchester Der Tonhalle Zürich / Walter Goehr - Monteverdi The Co and postulates that some of the sections in question, including the prologue, the coronation scene and the final duet, reflect Monteverdi's intentions and may have been written under his direct supervision.
L'incoronazione di Poppea is frequently described as a story in which virtue is punished and greed rewarded, running counter to the normal conventions of literary morality.
The musicologist Tim Carter calls the opera's characters and their actions "famously problematic", and its messages "at best ambiguous and at worst perverted",  while Rosand refers to an "extraordinary glorification of lust and ambition".
The critic Edward B. Savage asserts that despite the lack of a moral compass in virtually all the main characters, Busenello's Introduction - Claudio Monteverdi / Orchester Der Tonhalle Zürich / Walter Goehr - Monteverdi The Co is itself essentially moral, and that "this morality is sustained by the phenomenon of dramatic irony".
They would have known, too, that Nerone himself committed suicide a few years later, and that others—Ottavia, Lucano, Ottone —also met untimely deaths. Seventeenth-century Rome, under autocratic papal rule, was perceived by republican Venetians as Introduction - Claudio Monteverdi / Orchester Der Tonhalle Zürich / Walter Goehr - Monteverdi The Co direct threat to their liberties.
Rosand has suggested that Venetian audiences would have understood the Poppea story in the context of their own times as a moral lesson demonstrating the superiority of Venice, and that "such immorality was only possible in a decaying society, not [in] a civilized nation".
Music analyst Clifford Bartlett writes that "Monteverdi's glorious music goes beyond Busenello's cynical realism, and presents human behaviour in a better light". The score for L'incoronazione features 28 singing characters, including 7 ensemble parts, of which the two Amori Introduction - Claudio Monteverdi / Orchester Der Tonhalle Zürich / Walter Goehr - Monteverdi The Co only have appeared in Introduction - Claudio Monteverdi / Orchester Der Tonhalle Zürich / Walter Goehr - Monteverdi The Co Naples production.
The original Venetian production evidently made use U2 - On The Road extensive role-doubling, allowing the opera to be staged with no more than 11 singers: two female soprano s, three male sopranos castratostwo contralto s castratostwo tenor s and two basses.
Schneider has suggested the following reconstruction of the cast and the doubling plan from the premiere on the basis of an examination of, first, contemporary casting and doubling practices,  secondly, the recently discovered correspondence of the impresario Marquess Cornelio Bentivoglio,  and finally the libretto for La finta saviawhich preceded Poppea on the stage of the Santi Giovanni e Paolo in the Carnival and was written for the same cast.
The goddesses of Fortune and Virtue dispute which of them has the most power over humankind. They are interrupted by the god of Love, who claims greater power than either: "I tell the virtues what to do, I govern the fortunes of men. Ottone arrives at Poppea's villa, intent on pursuing his love. Seeing the house guarded by the Emperor Nerone's soldiers he realises he has been supplanted, and his love song turns to a lament: "Ah, ah, perfidious Poppea!
Nerone and Poppea enter and exchange words of love before Nerone departs. Poppea is warned by her nurse, Arnalta, to be careful of the empress's wrath and to distrust Nerone's apparent love for her, but Poppea is confident: "I fear no setback at all. The scene switches to the palace, where Ottavia bemoans her lot; "Despised queen, wretched consort of the emperor!
Seneca, Nerone's former tutor, addresses the empress with flattering words, and is mocked by Ottavia's page, Valleto, who threatens to set fire to the old man's beard.
Left alone, Seneca receives a warning from the goddess Pallade that his life is in danger. Nerone enters and confides that he intends to displace Ottavia and marry Poppea. Seneca demurs; such a move would be divisive and unpopular. Poppea joins Nerone, and tells him that Seneca claims to be the power behind the imperial throne.
This so angers Nerone that he instructs his guards to order Seneca to commit suicide. After Nero leaves, Ottone steps forward and after failing to persuade Poppea to reinstate him in her affections, privately resolves to kill her.
He is then comforted by a noblewoman, Drusilla; realising that he can never regain Poppea he offers to marry Drusilla, who joyfully accepts him. But Ottone admits to himself: "Drusilla is on my lips, Poppea is in my heart.
In his garden, Seneca learns from the god Mercurio that he is soon to die. The order duly arrives from Nerone, and Seneca instructs his friends to prepare a suicide bath. His followers try to persuade him to remain alive, but he rejects their pleading. Elsewhere in the palace, Ottone, in a long soliloquy, ponders how Ill Never Get Over You Getting Over Me - Exposé - Greatest Hits could have thought to kill Poppea with whom he remains hopelessly in love.
He is interrupted by a summons from Ottavia, who to his dismay orders him to kill Poppea. Threatening to denounce him to Nerone unless he complies, she suggests that he disguise himself as a woman to commit the deed. Ottone agrees to do as she bids, privately calling on the gods Sa Ke Cho - Zouk Machine - Les Essentiels relieve him of his life.
He then persuades Drusilla to lend him her clothes. In the garden of Poppea's villa, Arnalta sings her mistress to sleep while the god of Love looks on. Ottone, now disguised as Drusilla, enters the garden and raises his sword to kill Poppea.
Before he can do so, Love strikes the sword from his hand, and he runs away. His fleeing figure is seen by Arnalta and the now awakened Poppea, who believe that he is Drusilla. They call on their servants to give chase, while Love sings triumphantly "I protected her! Drusilla muses on the life of happiness before her, when Arnalta arrives with a lictor. Arnalta accuses Drusilla of being Poppea's assailant, and she is arrested. As Nerone enters, Arnalta denounces Drusilla, who protests her innocence.
Threatened with torture unless she names her accomplices, Drusilla decides to protect Ottone by confessing her own guilt. Nerone commands her to suffer a painful death, at which point Ottone rushes in and reveals the truth: that he had acted alone, at the command of the Empress Ottavia, and that Drusilla was innocent of complicity.
Nerone is impressed by Drusilla's fortitude, and in an act of clemency spares Ottone's life, ordering him banished. Drusilla chooses exile with him. Nerone now feels entitled to act against Ottavia and she is exiled, too.
This leaves the way open for him to marry Poppea, who is overjoyed: "No delay, no obstacle can come Let It Whip - DJ Crimecut - Parisienne People - Clubbing Tour 99 us now. Ottavia bids a quiet farewell to Rome, while in the throne room of the palace the coronation ceremony for Poppea is prepared.
The Consuls and Tribunes enter, and after a brief eulogy place the crown on Poppea's head. Watching over the proceedings is the god of Love with his mother, Venere, and a divine chorus. Nerone and Poppea sing a rapturous love duet "I gaze at you, I possess you" as the opera ends.
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