For example, in meningococcal infectionsan attack rate in excess of 15 cases perpeople for two consecutive weeks is considered an epidemic. Epidemics of infectious disease are generally caused by several factors including a change in the ecology of the host population e. Generally, an epidemic occurs when host immunity to either an established pathogen or newly emerging novel pathogen is suddenly reduced below that found in the endemic equilibrium and the transmission threshold is exceeded.
An epidemic may be restricted to one location; however, if it spreads to other countries or continents and affects a substantial number of people, it may be termed a pandemic. The term epidemic derives from a word form attributed to Homer 's Odysseywhich later took its medical meaning from the Epidemicsa treatise by Hippocrates.
The terms "epidemic" and "outbreak" have often been used interchangeably. Researchers Manfred S. Green and colleagues propose that the latter term be restricted to smaller events, pointing out that Chambers Concise Dictionary and Stedman's Medical Dictionary acknowledge this distinction.
There are several changes that may occur in an infectious agent that may trigger an epidemic. These include:  : An epidemic disease is not required to be contagious  and the term has been applied to West Nile fever  and the obesity epidemic e.
The conditions which govern the outbreak of epidemics include infected food supplies such as contaminated drinking water and the migration of populations of certain animals, such as rats or mosquitoes, which can act as disease vectors. Certain epidemics occur at certain seasons. For example, whooping-cough occurs in spring, whereas measles produces two epidemics, one in winter and one in March. Influenza, the common cold, and other infections of the upper respiratory tract, such as sore throat, occur predominantly in the winter.
There is another variation, both as regards Epidemic Cause - Epidemic Cause (Flexi-disc) number of people affected and the number who die in successive epidemics: the severity of successive epidemics rises and falls over periods of five or ten years.
In a common source outbreak epidemic, the affected individuals had an exposure to a common agent. If the exposure is singular and all of the affected individuals develop the disease over a single exposure and incubation course, it can be termed a point source outbreak.
If the exposure was continuous or variable, it can be termed a continuous outbreak or intermittent outbreak, respectively. In a propagated outbreak, the disease spreads person-to-person.
Affected individuals may become independent reservoirs leading to Epidemic Cause - Epidemic Cause (Flexi-disc) exposures. Many epidemics will have characteristics of both common source and propagated outbreaks sometimes referred as mixed outbreak. For example, secondary person-to-person spread may occur after a common source exposure or an environmental vectors may spread a zoonotic diseases agent. Experts [ who? Effective preparations for a response to a pandemic are multi-layered.
The first layer is Im Zeichen Der Vergeltung - WOA*, Oidoxie, Das Letzte Aufgebot - Drei Für Deutschland - Teil 2 disease surveillance system. Tanzaniafor example, runs a national lab that runs testing for health sites and tracks the spread of infectious diseases.
The next layer is the actual response to an emergency. According to U. Gates proposed that the world responded slowly to the Ebola virus outbreak because of a lack of preparation. Two weeks after the typhoon hit the Philippinesover foreign medical teams were on the ground helping with injured victims. After the earthquake in Pakistana team of aid workers who had been helping Afghan refugees for several decades were able to get to the victims in less than 24 hours. Bruce Aylwardassistant director general for emergencies at the World Health Organization, says that Epidemic Cause - Epidemic Cause (Flexi-disc) the case of the Ebola outbreak, "there was no way anyone could guarantee the right of medical evacuation for people affected by Ebola.
The CDC will scale back global disease prevention efforts by 80 percent by October due to a lack of funding as funding had been temporarily increased in to address the Ebola epidemic. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Epidemic disambiguation.
Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, Credo Reference. Emerging Infect. A treatise of the plague: containing the nature, signes, and accidents of the same, with the certaine and absolute cure of the fevers, botches and Epidemic Cause - Epidemic Cause (Flexi-disc) that raigne in these times. London: Edward White. Israel Medical Association Journal. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences, The Greenville News. South Carolina, US.
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