Remix culturesometimes read-write cultureis a society that allows and encourages derivative works by combining or editing existing materials to produce a new creative work or product.
While a common practice of artists of all domains throughout human history,  the growth of exclusive copyright restrictions in the last several decades limits this practice more and more by the legal chilling effect. Lessig founded the Creative Commons in which released Licenses as tools to enable remix culture again, as remixing is legally prevented by the default exclusive copyright regime applied currently on intellectual property. The remix culture Various - Remix Culture 166 cultural works is related to and inspired by the earlier Free and open-source software for software movement, which encourages the reuse and remixing of software works.
Lawrence Lessig described the Remix culture in his book Remix. Read Only culture RO. In the usual Read Only media culture, the culture is consumed more or less passively. There is a one-way flow only of creative content and ideas due to a clear role separation between content producer and content consumer. The emergence of Analog mass production and duplication technologies pre- Digital revolution and internet like radio broad-casting inherently enabled the RO culture's business model of production and distribution and limited the role of the consumer to consumption of media.
Digital technology does not have the 'natural' constraints of the analog that preceded it. RO culture had to be recoded in order Various - Remix Culture 166 compete with the "free" distribution made possible by the Internet. This is primarily done in the form of Digital Rights Management DRMwhich imposes largely arbitrary restrictions on usage. Regardless, DRM has proven largely ineffective in enforcing the constraints of analog media. Taking works, such as songs, and appropriating them in private circles is exemplary of RW culture, which was considered to be the 'popular' culture before the advent of reproduction Various - Remix Culture 166.
As it became professionalized, people were taught to defer production to the professionals. Digital technologies provide the tools for reviving RW culture and democratizing production, sometimes referred to as Web 2.
Blogs explain the three layers of this democratization. Blogs have redefined our relationship to the content industry as they allowed access to non-professional, user-generated content. The 'comments' feature that soon followed provided a space for readers to have a dialogue with the amateur contributors. The third layer added bots that analyzed the relationship between various websites by counting the clicks between them and, thus, organizing a database of preferences.
The three layers working together established an ecosystem of reputation that served to guide users through the blogosphere. While there is no doubt many amateur online publications cannot compete with the validity of professional sources, the democratization of digital RW culture and the ecosystem of reputation provides a space for many talented voices to be heard that was not available in the pre-digital RO model.
For remix culture to survive, it must be shared and created by others. This is where participatory culture comes into play, because consumers start participating by becoming contributors, especially the many teens growing up with these media cultures. Since media culture consumers start to look Various - Remix Culture 166 art and content as something that can be repurposed or recreated therefore making them the producer.
Remix culture has created an environment that is nearly impossible for artists to have or own " original work ". A major example of this in the 21st century is the idea of memes. Once one is put into cyberspace it is automatically assumed that someone else can come along and remix the picture. John Denver - Poems, Prayers & Promises exemption exists for Various - Remix Culture 166 service technology to change copyrighted media to make it accessible to them.
Copyright Office, Library of Congress to renew the exemptions that allow the visually impaired to convert visual texts in copyrighted work into e-readers and other forms of technology that make it possible for them to access.
It Various - Remix Culture 166 last been renewed in and continues to stand. Software as digital good is well suited for adaption and remixing.
GIFs are another example of remix culture. They are illustrations and small clips from films used for personal expressions in online conversations.
Throughout history remix culture has been truthful not only in exchange of oral stories but also through the Bible. Remixing was always a part of the human culture. The balance between creation and consumption shifted with the technological progress on media recording and reproduction. Notable events are the invention of book printing press and the analog Sound recording and reproduction leading to severe cultural and legal changes.
In the beginning of the 20th century, on the dawn of the analog Sound recording and reproduction revolution, John Philip Sousaan American composer and conductor of the late Romantic erawarned in in a congressional hearing on a Various - Remix Culture 166 change of the musical culture by the now available "canned music". These talking machines are going to ruin the artistic development of music in this country.
When I was a boy Today you hear these infernal machines going night and day. We will not have a vocal cord left. The vocal cord will be eliminated by a process of evolution, as was the tail of man when he came from the ape. Specialized, expensive creation devices "read-write" and specialized cheap consumption "read-only" devices allowed a centralized production by few and decentralized consumption by many.
Analog devices for consumers for low prices, lacking the capability of writing and creating, spread out fast: NewspapersJukeboxradiotelevision. This new business model, an Industrial information economydemanded and resulted in the strengthening of the exclusive copyright and a weakening of the remix culture and the Public domain in throughout the 19th and 20th century.
Analog creation devices were expensive and also Various - Remix Culture 166 in their editing and rearranging capability. An analog copy of a work e. Wake Up - Rage Against The Machine - Rage Against The Machine that, a creative remixing culture survived to some limited degree.
For instance composer John Oswald coined in the Plunderphonics term in his essay Plunderphonics, or Audio Piracy as a Compositional Prerogative for sound collages based on existing audio recordings and Änglarna Dansar - Å - Å them in some way to make a new composition. Technology changed fundamentally with the digital revolution.
Still, in the s the first digital general computing devices with such capabilities were meant only for specialists and professionals and were extremely expensive; the first consumer oriented devices like video game consoles inherently lacked RW capability. But in the s, the arrival of the home computer and especially the IBM personal computer brought a digital prosumer device, a device usable for production and consumption at the same time, to the masses for an affordable price.
The arrival of the Internet in the late s and early s created a highly effective way to re-implement a "remix culture" in all domains of art, technology and society. Unlike TV and radio, with a unidirectional information transport producer to consumerthe Internet is inherently bidirectionalenabling a peer-to-peer dynamic. This accelerated with Web 2. Remixes of songs, videos, and photos are easily distributed and created. There is a constant revision to what is being created, which is done on both a professional and amateur scale.
The availability of various end-user oriented software such as GarageBand and Adobe Photoshop makes it easy to remix. The Internet allows distribution of remixes to the masses. Internet memes are Internet-specific creative content which are created, filtered and transformed by the viral spreading process made possible by the web and its users.
In the Creative Commons Thought A Temple - Terracid - Skies a set of licenses as tools to enable remix culture, by allowing a balanced, fair enabling release of creative works, "some rights reserved" instead of the usual " all rights reserved ".
Several companies and Plateau Skull - The Myrrors - Burning Circles In The Sky organizations adapted this approach and licenses in the following years, for instance flickrDeviantART  and Europeana using or offering CC license options which allow remixing. There are several webpages addressing this remix culture, for instance ccMixter founded The open-source film by Brett Gaylor RiP!
In Canada 's Copyright Modernization Act explicitly added a new exemption which allows non-commercial remixing. Universal Music Corp. Under copyright laws of many countries, anyone with the intent to remix an existing work is liable for lawsuit because the Criticise - Disco Mix - Sister Candy, Colonel Flux & General T - Showcase protect the intellectual property of the work.
However, current copyright laws are proving to be ineffective at preventing sampling of content. Lessig argues that there needs to be a change in the current state of copyright laws to legalize remix culture, especially for fair-use cases. He states that "outdated copyright laws have turned our children into criminals.
The artist would cite the intellectual property she sampled which would give the original creator the credit, as is common with literature references. As tools for doing so Lawrence Lessig proposed the Creative Commons licenses which demand for instance Attribution without restricting the general use of Various - Remix Culture 166 creative work.
One step further is the Free content movement, which proposes that creative content should be released under free licenses. The Various - Remix Culture 166 reform movement tries to tackle the problem by cutting for instance the excessively long Faustine Cruz - HNW SERIES V.VII termsas it was debated by scholar Rufus Pollock.
Other copyright scholars, such as Yochai Benkler and Erez Reuveni,  promulgate ideas that are closely related to remix culture. Some scholars argue that the academic and legal institutions must change with the culture towards one that is remix-based. In February Cato Institute 's Julian Sanchez praised the remix activities for its social value, "for performing social realities" and remarked that copyright should be evaluated regarding the "level of control permitted to be exercised over our social realities".
According to Kirby Ferguson in and his popular TED talk series,  everything is a remix, and that all Yes - Various - Now Dance 2003 material builds off of and remixes previously existing material. Ferguson described that, the three key elements of creativity — copy, transform, and combine — are the building blocks of all original ideas; building on Pablo Picasso 's famous quote "Good artists copy, great artists steal.
But the culture is not without its critics even going so far in accusations of plagiarism. In his book Cult of the Amateur. Joo criticized remix culture for romanticizing free culture.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Copyright reform movement. Retrieved Most cultures around the world have evolved through the mixing and merging of different cultural expressions. Teachers College Press. Oxford Scholarship Online. Copyright Office". At this date, however, many of the individual stories were already ancient. If it were further declared that the Panchatantra is the best collection of stories in the world, the assertion could hardly be disproved, and would probably command the assent of those possessing the knowledge for a judgment.
As early as the eleventh century this work reached Europe, and before it existed in GreekLatinSpanishItalianGerman, English, Old Slavonic, Czechand perhaps other Slavonic languages. Its range has extended from Java Various - Remix Culture 166 Iceland And most of the stories contained in it have "gone down" into the folklore of the story-loving Hindus, whence they reappear in the collections of oral tales gathered by modern students Various - Remix Culture 166 folk-stories.
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