The term cockney has had several distinct geographical, social, and linguistic associations. Originally a pejorative term applied to all city-dwellers, it was gradually restricted to Londonersand particularly to "Bow-bell Cockneys":  those born Deep Waves - Fraktal - Oxyde earshot of Bow Bells, the bells of St Mary-le-Bow  in the Cheapside district of the City of London.
It eventually came to be used to refer to those in London's East Endor to all working-class Londoners generally. Cockney English is the accent or dialect of English traditionally spoken by working-class Londoners. In the s, some features of cockney became more frequent in broadcasting, and the media began to speak of a new standard called Estuary Englishbut most linguists rejected this analysis and the term is less frequently used now. The present meaning of cockney comes from its use among rural Englishmen attested in as a pejorative term for effeminate town-dwellers,   from an earlier general sense encountered in " The Reeve's Tale " of Geoffrey Chaucer 's The Canterbury Tales c.
The region in which cockneys are thought to reside is not clearly defined. Originally, when London consisted of little more than the Citythe term applied to all Londoners, but as the city grew this was replaced by less universal definitions. A common view is that in order to be a cockney, one must have been born within earshot of Bow Bells, the bells of St Mary-le-Bow which were cast at the Whitechapel Bell Foundry. Although the bells were destroyed again in in the Blitzthey had fallen silent on 13 June as part of the Para Toda La Vida - Rocío Dúrcal - Cómo Han Pasado Los Años.
10 Años Sin Rocío Dúrcal (Sus Mejores anti-invasion preparations of World War II. Before they were replaced inthere was a period when, by the "within earshot" definition, no "Bow Bell" cockneys could be born. There is a maternity unit still in use at the Royal London Hospital in Whitechapel. Home births were very common until the late s. However the Bow Bells definition reflects the earlier definition of Cockney as relating to all Londoners at a time when London barely extended beyond the square mile.
The use of The Long Run - Eagles - The Legend Of term to describe all Londoners generally, however, survived into the 19th century  before becoming restricted to the working class and their particular accent.
The term is now used loosely to describe all East Londonersirrespective of their speech. A study was carried out by the City in to see how far away Bow Bells could be heard,  and it was estimated that the bells would have been heard up to six miles to the east, five miles to the north, three miles to the south, and four miles to the west.
According to the legend Gamhanned - Ahasverus - Evocation Dick Whittington the bells could once be heard from as far away as the Highgate Archway 4. Based on a definition of the bells audible range, all East Enders are cockneys, but not all cockneys are East Enders; though whereas an East Ender would be likely to proudly claim that entitlement, a resident of west, north or south London would be less likely to.
Writing inthe dialectologist Peter Wright identified the building of the Becontree estate near Dagenham in Essex as influential in the spread of cockney dialect.
This very large estate was built by the Corporation of London to house poor residents of London's East End on what was previously a rural area of Essex, and the residents generally kept their native cockney dialect rather than adopt an Essex dialect. Writing inthe dialectologist Peter Wright gave some examples of then-contemporary Cockney speakers: .
A band called the Cockney Rejects are credited with creating a sub-genre of punk rock called Oi! A dialectological study of Leytonstone in then in Essex found that the area's dialect was very similar to that recorded in Bethnal Green by Eva Sivertsen but there were still some features that distinguished Leytonstone speech from cockney.
Linguistic research conducted in the early s suggests that today, certain elements of cockney English are declining in usage within the East End of London and the accent has migrated to Outer London and the Home Counties.
In parts of London's East End, some traditional features of cockney have been displaced by a Jamaican Creole -influenced variety popular among young Londoners sometimes referred to as " Jafaican "particularly, though far from exclusively, those of Afro-Caribbean descent. An influential London Bells - Various - The Sounds Of London - A Celebration In Words & Music report by Paul Kerswill, Professor of Sociolinguistics at Lancaster UniversityMulticultural London English : the emergence, acquisition and diffusion of a new varietypredicted that the cockney accent will disappear from London's streets within 30 years.
Conversely, the mostly post-war migration of cockney-speakers has led to a shift in the dialect area, towards the suburbs and Home Counties, especially Essex.
Many areas beyond the capital have become Cockney-speaking to a greater or lesser degree, including the new towns of Basildon and Harlowand expanded towns such as Grays and Southend. However, this is, except where least mixed, difficult to discern because of common features: linguistic historian and researcher of early dialects Alexander John Ellis in stated that cockney developed owing to the influence of Essex dialect on London speech.
The Pearly Kings and Queens are famous as an East End institution, but London Bells - Various - The Sounds Of London - A Celebration In Words & Music perception is not wholly correct as they are found in other places across London, including Peckham and Penge in south London. Cockney speakers have a distinctive accent and dialect, and occasionally use rhyming slang.
The Survey of English Dialects took a recording from a long-time resident of Hackney, and the BBC made another recording in which showed how the accent had changed. John Camden Hotten, in his Slang Dictionary ofmakes reference to "their use of a peculiar slang language" when describing the costermongers of London's East End. A fake cockney Spirit Of Voyage (Non Vocal Mix) - Mondo Grosso - Marble is sometimes called mockneythough the term is sometimes also used as a self-deprecatory moniker, by second, third and subsequent generations of the cockney diaspora, beyond London, who continue to value their cockney heritage.
By the s and s, most of the features mentioned above had partly spread into more general south-eastern speech, giving the accent called Estuary English ; an Estuary speaker will use some but not all of the cockney sounds.
The cockney accent has long been looked down upon and thought of as inferior by many. For example, in the Conference on the Teaching of English in London Elementary Schools issued by the London County Councilstating that "the Cockney mode of speech, with its unpleasant twang, is a modern corruption without legitimate credentials, and is unworthy of being the speech of any person in the capital city of the Empire ".
In the s, the only accent to be heard on the BBC except in entertainment programmes such as The Sooty Show was RPwhereas nowadays many different accents, including cockney or accents heavily influenced by it, can be heard on the BBC. The cockney accent often featured in films produced by Ealing Studios and was frequently portrayed as the typical British accent in movies by Walt Disney.
Studies have indicated that the heavy use of South East England accents on television and radio may be the cause of the spread of cockney English since the s. Studies have indicated that working-class adolescents in areas such as Glasgow have begun to use certain aspects of cockney and other Anglicisms in their speech. The term Estuary English has been used to describe London pronunciations that are slightly closer to RP than cockney.
The variety first came to public prominence in an article by David Rosewarne in the Times Educational Supplement in October The phonetician John C.
Wells collected media references to Estuary English on a website. Writing in AprilWells argued that research by Joanna Przedlacka "demolished the claim that EE was a single entity sweeping the southeast. Rather, we have various sound changes emanating from working-class London speech, each spreading independently".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Cockney disambiguation. Example of a cockney accent. This section London Bells - Various - The Sounds Of London - A Celebration In Words & Music additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Example of a Cockney accent. Language portal London portal Society portal. Retrieved 18 January Cambridge University Press.
Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved April 10, London's cockney culture looks a bit different". Chicago Tribune. East London History. Retrieved 16 August English Phonetics and Phonology. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 22 June Retrieved 24 March Cockney : a native of London. An ancient nickname implying effeminacy, used by the oldest English writers, and derived from the imaginary fool's paradise, or lubberland, Cockaygne. In this great cytees as London, York, Perusy and such Robinson ed.
The Poetical Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Some thoughts concerning education Third ed. I shall explain myself more particularly; only laying down this as a general and certain observation for the women to consider, viz. Retrieved 1 October Archived from the original on 16 August Retrieved Swinnerton, The London Companion Robson,p.
WhatsonTV 13 November Retrieved 17 January Fight Back: Punk, Politics and Resistance. Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 August Retrieved 20 July University of Leeds.
Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 21 September Times Educational Supplement, 19 October ". BBC English. London: telegraph. Retrieved 18 March BBC News. Retrieved 21 January Archived from the original on 4 September Variation and change London Bells - Various - The Sounds Of London - A Celebration In Words & Music Glaswegian accent". Journal of Sociolinguistics. Archived from the original on 5 January Estuary English?
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