While the concept of Refuge Trees appears in liturgical texts at least as early as the 16th century, based on known examples Refuge Tree paintings appear to Asfaltdrömmar - Vanek - Djupare Än Underjorden (File, Album) only become popular from the 18th century  making them a late development in the history of Tibetan art.
Refuge Tree or Refuge Field paintings depict the important objects of " Refuge " for each sect or lineage in the form of a genealogical chart. Each lineage has its own distinctive form of composition but they usually include the " Three Jewels " Sanskrit: triratna : BuddhaDharma and Sanghathe "Refuges" common to all major schools of Buddhism. Many other figures such as Buddhist practitioners, animals, offering goddesses and other Buddhist symbols and imagery are also often included.
A Refuge Tree painting may contain over a hundred figures, or only the key representative figures of each main grouping. A key function of The Space Station Chapel Part 1 - Edward Ka-Spel - CybersKapes Refuge Tree painting is to depict the transmission lineage of the particular sect or tradition.
As David P. The structures of the compositions symbolize the interconnectedness of the various figures and groupings. The figures of "Refuge" are depicted within the form of a tree diagram usually supported by three main structures: the branches of a stylised tree, a palace, or lotus flower and lion throne.
The support depends on the lineage and the liturgical text the painting is based on. When the support is a tree, it is often referred to as a "wish-fulfilling tree" Wylie: dpag bsam gyi shing.
Rhie and Robert A. Thurman assert that the depiction of the Refuge Assembly in the form of a tree "developed from the ancient tradition of the Buddha being born under an ashoka treeattaining enlightenment under a pipal or Bodhi Treeand passing away from his coarse material body under two sal trees ". In this text, he described the Field of Accumulation in a configuration on the peak of a tree  with Shakyamuni Buddha representing the Root Lama as the main figure.
Later Gelug paintings also feature the founder of the Gelug sect, Je Tsongkapa as the central figure. In both cases, as Jackson and Jackson describe, the central figure is at the pinnacle of the tree "surrounded by descending concentric rows of exalted beings". In this case, according to Jackson and Jackson:. On the other side [is] the "Lineage of the Profound View", the Madhyamaka tradition Limetree Helicopters - Various - (Garden Of Delights Presents.) Seek Refuge. (From Your Intolera down through Manjusri and Nagarjuna.
The Karma Kagyu sect of Tibetan Buddhism developed another form of tree structure for their objects of "Refuge". In summary, these texts describe the following: .
A golden tree trunk grows out of a beautiful lake. On the other four main branches that radiate towards the four cardinal directions are: the Yidams on the front branch; to the left are the Buddhas of past, present and future and the ten directions; on the rear branch are their teachings represented by a stack of sacred scriptures or pechas ; to the right is the Sangha represented by Bodhisattvas and monks; beneath the Lamas are all the Dharmapalas surrounded by their helpers.
The earliest known paintings of Nyingma Refuge Trees appear to be from the 19th century and are based on the description from the Longchen Nyingtig preliminary practices as explained in The Words of My Perfect Teacher  by Patrul Rinpoche. In summary the text describes the following:  Vajradhara of Oddiyana is in union with the white dakini Yeshe Tsogyal in the centre; the Lineage Lamas are above; Quartz - Progracid the branch in front are the Buddhas of past, present and future and the ten directions; on the right are the Eight Great Bodhisattvas ; on the Limetree Helicopters - Various - (Garden Of Delights Presents.) Seek Refuge.
(From Your Intolera branch are the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas; on the branch at the rear are the teachings; and beneath are the Protectors of the Lineage. Based on known examples, it appears that Sakya Refuge Tree paintings are a 20th-century concept as few examples exist pre From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Dharma Concepts.
Buddhist texts. Buddhism by country. Himalayan Art Resources. Retrieved 28 April Jackson Tibetan Thangka Painting: Material and Methods. London La Haule Books Ltd. Thurman A Shrine for Tibet. The Torch of Certainty. Translated by Judith Hanson. Boston: Shambhala Publications. The Words of My Perfect Teacher. Translated by Padmakara Translation Group. Retrieved 30 April The Excellent Path of the Two Accumulations.
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