The name Canaan appears throughout the Biblewhere it corresponds Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation the Levantin particular to the areas of the Southern Levant that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Bible: PhoeniciaPhilistiaIsraeland other nations. The word Canaanites serves as an ethnic catch-all term covering various indigenous populations—both settled and nomadic-pastoral groups—throughout the regions of the southern Levant or Canaan. Biblical scholar Mark Smith notes that archaeological data suggests "that the Israelite culture largely Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation with Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation derived from Canaanite culture In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature.
Much of modern knowledge about Canaan stems from archaeological excavation in this area at sites such as Tel HazorTel MegiddoEn Esurand Mama Didnt Lie - Various - Hard To Find Jukebox Classics: 1963 Rock, Rhythm & Pop. The etymology is uncertain.
An alternative suggestion put forward by Ephraim Avigdor Speiser in derives the term from Hurrian Kinahhupurportedly referring to the colour purple, so that Canaan and Phoenicia would be synonyms "Land of Purple". Purple cloth became a renowned Canaanite export commodity which is mentioned in Exodus. The dyes may have been named after their place of origin. The name 'Phoenicia' is connected with the Greek word for "purple", apparently referring to the same product, but it is difficult to state with certainty whether the Greek word came from the name, or vice versa.
The purple cloth of Tyre in Phoenicia was well Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation far and wide and was associated by the Romans with nobility and royalty. However, according to Robert Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation Speiser's proposal has generally been abandoned.
Canaanite culture apparently developed in situ from the earlier Ghassulian chalcolithic culture, which pioneered the Mediterranean agricultural system typical of the Canaanite region, which comprised intensive subsistence horticultureextensive grain growing, commercial wine and olive cultivation and transhumance pastoralism. A letter from Mut-bisir to Shamshi-Adad I c. It was found in in the ruins of Marian Assyrian outpost at that time in Syria. After a popular uprising against his rule, Idrimi was forced into exile with his mother's relatives to seek refuge in "the land of Canaan", where he prepared for an eventual attack to recover his city.
The other references in the Alalakh texts are: . References to Canaanites are also found throughout the Amarna letters of Pharaoh Akhenaten c. In these letters, some of which were sent by governors and princes of Canaan to their Egyptian overlord Akhenaten Amenhotep IV in the 14th century BC, are found, beside Amar and Amurru Amoritesthe two forms Kinahhi and Kinahnicorresponding to Kena and Kena'an respectively, and including Syria in its widest extentas Eduard Meyer has shown.
The letters are written in the official and diplomatic East Semitic Akkadian language of Assyria and Babyloniathough "Canaanitish" words and idioms are also in evidence. The known references are: .
Text RS The other Ugarit reference, KTU 4. A Middle Assyrian letter during the reign of Shalmaneser I includes a reference to the "travel to Canaan" of an Assyrian official.
Four references are known from Hattusa: . During the 2nd millennium BC, Ancient Egyptian texts use the term Canaan to refer to an Egyptian-ruled colony, whose boundaries generally corroborate the definition of Canaan found in the Hebrew Biblebounded to the west by the Mediterranean Sea, to the north in the vicinity of Hamath in Syria, to the east by the Jordan Valleyand to the south by a line extended from the Dead Sea to around Gaza. Nevertheless, the Egyptian and Hebrew uses of the term are not identical: the Egyptian texts also identify the coastal city of Qadesh in north west Syria near Turkey as part of the "Land of Canaan", so that the Egyptian usage seems to refer to the entire Levantine coast of the Mediterranean Sea, making it a synonym Take A Sip - The Upsetters - Return Of Django another Egyptian term for this coastland, Retjenu.
Lebanon, in northern Canaan, bordered by the Litani river to the watershed of the Orontes Riverwas known by the Egyptians as upper Retjenu. Many earlier Egyptian sources also mention numerous military campaigns conducted in Ka-na-najust inside Asia.
Archaeological attestation of the name Canaan in Ancient Near Eastern sources relates almost exclusively to the period in which the region operated as a colony of the New Kingdom of Egypt 16th—11th centuries BCwith usage of the name almost disappearing following the Late Bronze Age collapse c. The inscription is dated to — BC, more than years after the preceding known inscription. During the period from c. Quoting fragments attributed to Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation he relates that ByblosBerytus and Tyre were among the first cities ever built, under the rule of the mythical Cronusand credits the inhabitants with developing fishing, hunting, agriculture, shipbuilding and writing.
Saint Augustine also Che Mai Farò [Et Maintenant] - Milva - Milva * Original Star* that one of the terms the seafaring Phoenicians called their homeland was "Canaan".
Augustine also records that the rustic people of Hippo in North Africa retained the Punic self-designation Chanani.
The Judean Jewish, see Ioudaioi control over the wider area resulted in it also becoming known as Judaeaa term that had Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation only referred to the smaller region of the Judean Mountainsthe allotment of the Tribe of Judah and heartland of the former Kingdom of Judah.
Around — AD, as a result of the suppression of the Bar Kochba revolt, the province of Iudaea was joined with Galilee to form new province of Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation Palaestina. There is circumstantial evidence linking Hadrian with the name change,  although the precise date is not certain, Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation and the interpretation of some scholars that the name change may have been intended "to complete the dissociation with Judaea"   is disputed.
After the Iron Age the periods are named after the various empires that ruled the region: AssyrianBabylonian, PersianGreek Hellenistic and Roman. One of the earliest settlements Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation the region was at Jericho in Canaan. The earliest settlements were seasonal, but, by the Bronze Agehad developed into large urban centres. Sumerian references to the Mar. Amorite country West of the Euphrates date from even earlier than Sargon, at least to the reign of the Sumerian king, Enshakushanna of Urukand one tablet credits the early Sumerian king Lugal-anne-mundu with holding sway in the region, although this tablet is considered less credible because it was produced centuries later.
The archives of Ebla show reference to a number of biblical sites, including HazorJerusalemand as a number of people have claimed, to Sodom and Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation mentioned in Genesis as well.
Ugarit may be included among these Amoritic entities. The first cities in the southern Levant arose during this period. Urbanism returned and the region was divided among small city-states, the most important of which seems to have been Hazor.
As early as Naram-Sin of Akkad 's reign c. At this time the Canaanite area seemed divided between two confederacies, one centred upon Megiddo in the Jezreel Valleythe second on the more northerly city of Kadesh on the Orontes River [ citation needed ]. The semi-fictional Story of Sinuhe describes an Egyptian officer, Sinuhe, conducting military activities in the area of "Upper Retchenu" and "Finqu" during the reign of Senusret I c.
Around BC, Canaanites invaded the eastern Delta of Egypt, where, known as the Hyksosthey became the dominant power. Archaeological excavations of a number of sites, later identified as Canaanite, show that prosperity of Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation region reached its apogee during this Middle Bronze Age period, under leadership of the city of Hazorat least nominally tributary to Egypt for much of the period.
In the north, the cities of Yamkhad and Qatna were hegemons of important confederaciesand it would appear that biblical Hazor was the chief city of another important coalition in the south.
Later still, the Neo Assyrian Empire assimilated the region. The migrant ancient Semitic-speaking peoples who appear to have settled in the region included among others the Amoriteswho had earlier controlled Babylonia. Evidently, the Amorites played a significant role in the early history of Canaan. In Gen. However, other passages such as Gen. In the centuries preceding the appearance of the biblical Hebrews, parts of Canaan and southwestern Syria became tributary to the Egyptian Pharaohs, although domination by the Egyptians remained sporadic, and not strong enough to prevent frequent local rebellions and Work - Various - Fire!
Rockele struggles. Other areas such as northern Canaan and northern Syria came to be ruled by the Assyrians during this period. Nevertheless, Thutmose III reported a new and troubling element in the population. Habiru or in Egyptian 'Apiru, are reported for the first time. These seem to have been mercenaries, brigands, or outlaws, who may have at one time led a settled life, but with bad luck or due to the force of circumstances, contributed a rootless element to the population, prepared to hire themselves to whichever local mayor, king, or princeling would pay for their support.
Although Habiru SA-GAZ a Sumerian ideogram glossed as "brigand" in Akkadianand sometimes Habiri an Akkadian word had been reported in Mesopotamia from the reign of the Sumerian king, Shulgi of Ur IIItheir appearance in Canaan appears [ citation needed ] to have been due to the arrival of a new state based in Asia Minor to the north of Assyria and based upon a Maryannu aristocracy of horse-drawn charioteersassociated with the Indo-Aryan rulers of the Hurriansknown as Mitanni.
The Habiru seem to have been more a social class than an ethnic group. It is believed [ by whom? The boldest of the disaffected nobles was Aziruson of Abdi-Ashirtaa prince of Amurru, who, even before the death of Amenhotep III, endeavoured to extend his power into the plain of Damascus. Akizzigovernor of Katna Qatna?
In the reign of the next pharaoh Akhenatenreigned c. Egyptian power in Canaan thus suffered a Two Hearts - John Parr - Running The Endless Mile setback when the Hittites or Hat. Abdi-Ashirta and his son Aziru, at first afraid of the Hittites, afterwards made a treaty with their king, and joining with the Hittites, attacked and conquered the districts remaining loyal to Egypt. In vain did Rib-Hadda send touching appeals for aid to the distant Pharaoh, who was far too engaged in his religious innovations to attend to such messages.
The Amarna letters tell of the Habiri in northern Syria. Etakkama wrote thus to the Pharaoh:. Similarly, Zimridaking of Sidon named 'Siduna'declared, "All my cities which the king has given into my hand, have come into the hand of the Habiri. Abdi-heba's principal trouble arose from persons called Iilkili and the sons of Labayawho are said to have entered into a treasonable league with the Habiri.
Apparently this restless warrior found his death at the siege of Gina. All these princes, however, maligned each other in their letters to the Pharaoh, and protested their own innocence of traitorous intentions.
Namyawaza, for instance, whom Etakkama see above accused of disloyalty, wrote thus to the Pharaoh. From the mid 14th century BC through to the 11th century BC, Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation of Canaan particularly the north, central, and eastern regions of Syria and the northwestern Fernando - Living Strings - After The Lovin coastal regions fell to the Middle Assyrian Empireand both Egyptian and Hittite influence waned as a result.
Powerful Assyrian kings extracted tribute from Canaanite states and cities from north, east, and central Syria as far as the Mediterranean. A powerful warrior king, he annexed territories in Syria and Canaan previously under Egyptian or Hittite influence, and the growing power of Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation was perhaps the reason why these two states made peace with one another. Just after the Amarna period a new problem arose which was to trouble the Egyptian control of southern Canaan the rest of the region now being under Assyrian control.
Seti I c. Egyptian forces penetrated into Moab and Ammonwhere a permanent fortress garrison called simply "Rameses" was established. Some believe the "Habiru" Punk Rock Stars - The Art Attacks - Outrage & Horror generally all the nomadic tribes known as "Hebrews", and particularly the early Israelites of the period of the "judges", who sought to appropriate the fertile region for Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation.
Whether the term may also include other related ancient Semitic-speaking peoples such as the MoabitesAmmonites and Edomites is uncertain. It may not be an ethnonym at all; see the article Habiru for details. The northern Levant was divided into various petty kingdoms, the so-called Syro-Hittite states and the Phoenician city-states. The Egyptiansthen under a Nubian Dynastymade a failed attempt to regain a foothold in the region, but were vanquished by the Assyriansleading to an Assyrian invasion and conquest of Egypt and the destruction of the Kushite Empire.
The Kingdom of Judah was forced to pay tribute to Assyria. Between and BC the Assyrian Empire collapsed due to a series of bitter civil wars, followed by an attack by an alliance of BabyloniansMedesand Persians and the Scythians. The Babylonians inherited the western part of the empire of their Assyrian brethren, including all the lands in Canaan and Syriatogether with Israel and Judah.
They successfully defeated the Egyptians, who had belatedly attempted to aid their former masters, the Assyrians, and then remained in the region in an attempt to regain a foothold in the Near East. It remained so until in BC it was conquered by the Greeks under Alexander the Greatlater to fall to Rome in the late 2nd century BC, and then Byzantiumuntil the Arab Islamic invasion and conquest of the 7th century. Canaan included what today are Lebanon, Israel, northwestern Jordan, and some western areas of Syria.
Tubb, " AmmonitesMoabitesIsraelitesand Phoenicians undoubtedly achieved their own cultural identities, and yet ethnically they were all Canaanites", "the same people who settled in farming villages in the region in the 8th millennium BC. There is uncertainty about whether the name Canaan refers to a specific Semitic-speaking ethnic group wherever they live, the homeland of this ethnic group, a region under the control of Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation ethnic group, or perhaps any combination of the three.
Canaanite civilization was a response to long periods Shesphergisti - Ahasverus - Evocation stable climate interrupted by short periods of climate change.
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