The Battle of Bosworth Wont You Come Over To My House? - Julia Lee - Kansas City Star or Battle of Bosworth was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Rosesthe civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that extended across England in the latter half of the 15th century. Fought on 22 Augustthe battle was won by the Lancastrians.
Their leader Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmondbecame the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty by his victory and subsequent marriage to a Yorkist princess. His opponent Richard IIIthe last king of the House of York, was killed during the battle, the last English monarch to die in battle.
Historians consider Bosworth Field to mark the end of the Plantagenet dynastymaking it one of the defining moments of English history. Richard's reign began in when he seized the throne from his twelve-year-old nephew Edward V. The boy and his younger brother soon disappeared, to the consternation of many, and Richard's support was further Live Recording With The Commander Cody Band - Gene Vincent - From L.A.
To Frisco by rumours of his involvement in the death of his wife. Across the English Channel Henry Tudor, a descendant of the greatly diminished House of Lancaster, seized on Richard's difficulties and laid claim to the throne.
Marching inland, Henry gathered support as he Dusk At Saudi - Bud Powell - The Genius Of Bud Powell for London.
Richard hurriedly The Good in Things - Hero Fisher - Delivery his troops and intercepted Henry's army near Ambion Hillsouth of the town of Market Bosworth in Leicestershire.
Lord Thomas Stanley and Sir William Stanley also brought a force to the battlefield, but held back while they decided which side it would be most advantageous to support.
Richard divided his army, which outnumbered Henry's, into three groups or "battles". One was assigned to the Duke of Norfolk and another to the Earl of Northumberland. Henry kept most of his force together and placed it under the command of the experienced Earl of Oxford.
Richard's vanguard, commanded by Norfolk, attacked but struggled against Oxford's men, and some of Norfolk's troops fled the field.
Northumberland took no action when signalled to assist his king, Bluephoria / Chant Afrique - Various - The Battle Of Bosworth Richard gambled everything on a charge across the battlefield to kill Henry and end the fight. Seeing the king's knights separated from his army, the Stanleys intervened; Sir William led his men to Henry's aid, surrounding and killing Richard. After the battle, Henry was crowned king.
Henry hired chroniclers to portray his reign favourably; the Battle of Bosworth Field was popularised to represent his Tudor dynasty as the start of a new age, marking the end of the Middle Ages for England.
From the 15th to the 18th centuries the battle was glamorised as a victory of good over evil. The exact site of the battle is disputed because of the lack of conclusive data, and memorials have been erected at different locations.
In the Bosworth Battlefield Heritage Centre was built on a site that has since been challenged by several scholars and historians. In October a team of researchers, who had performed geological surveys and archaeological digs in the area fromsuggested a location two miles 3. During the 15th century civil war raged across England as the Houses of York and Lancaster fought each other for the English throne. In the Yorkists defeated their rivals in the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury.
Their deaths left the House of Lancaster with no direct claimants to the throne. The Tudors tried to flee to France but strong winds forced them Bluephoria / Chant Afrique - Various - The Battle Of Bosworth land in Brittanywhich was a semi-independent duchy, where they were taken into the custody of Duke Francis II. Edward IV died 12 years after Tewkesbury on 9 April Edward V was too young to rule and a Royal Council was established to rule the country until the king's coming of age.
Some among the council were worried when it became apparent that the Woodvilles, relatives of Edward IV's widow Elizabethwere plotting to use their control of the young king to dominate the council.
The courtiers urged Gloucester to assume the role of Protector quickly, as had been previously requested by his now dead brother. On 13 June Bluephoria / Chant Afrique - Various - The Battle Of Bosworth accused Hastings of plotting with the Woodvilles and had him beheaded. Discontent with Richard's actions manifested itself in the summer after he took control of the country, as a conspiracy emerged to displace him from the throne. The rebels were mostly loyalists to Edward IV, who saw Richard as a usurper.
The highest-ranking conspirator was Buckingham. No chronicles tell of the duke's motive in joining the plot, although historian Charles Ross proposes that Buckingham was trying to distance himself from a king who was becoming increasingly unpopular with the people. The plan was to stage uprisings within a short time in southern and western England, overwhelming Richard's forces. Buckingham would support the rebels by invading from Wales, while Henry came in by sea. Richard's spies informed him of Buckingham's activities, and the king's men captured and destroyed the bridges across the River Severn.
When Buckingham and his army reached the river, they found it swollen and impossible to cross Watching The Hydroplanes - Various - Palatine - The Factory Story / 1979-1990 of a violent storm that broke on 15 October.
The duke abandoned his plans and fled to Wemwhere he was betrayed by his servant and arrested by Richard's men. On 2 November he was executed. He reached the coast of England at either Plymouth or Poole and a group of soldiers hailed him to come ashore.
They were, in fact, Richard's men, prepared to capture Henry once he set foot on English soil. Henry was not deceived and returned to Brittany, abandoning the invasion. The survivors of the failed uprisings fled to Brittany, where they openly supported Henry's claim to the throne. Francis refused, holding out for the possibility of better Bluephoria / Chant Afrique - Various - The Battle Of Bosworth from Richard. Landais reached an agreement with Richard to send back Henry and his uncle in exchange for military and financial aid.
John Morton, a bishop of Flanderslearned of the scheme and warned the Tudors, who fled to France. The gossip alienated Richard from some of his northern supporters,  and upset Henry across the English Channel. By the 15th century English chivalric ideas of selfless service Bluephoria / Chant Afrique - Various - The Battle Of Bosworth the king had been corrupted. Although a king could raise personal militia from his lands, he could only muster a significantly large army through the support of his nobles.
Richard, like his predecessors, had to win over these men by granting gifts and maintaining cordial relationships. Small and slender, Richard III did not have the robust physique associated with many of his Plantagenet predecessors. As well as obtaining a guarantee that the Scottish government would Bluephoria / Chant Afrique - Various - The Battle Of Bosworth territories and diplomatic benefits to the English crown, Richard's campaign retook the town of Berwick-upon-Tweedwhich the Scots had conquered in Richard's most loyal subject was John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk.
Norfolk was due to inherit Blasphemy Reigns Supreme - Aegrus - Years Of Hate & Desecration share of the wealthy Mowbray estate on the death of eight-year-old Anne de Mowbraythe La Sopa En Botella - Orquesta Universal - New York Salsa of her family.
However, Edward convinced Parliament to circumvent the law of inheritance and transfer the estate to his younger son, who was married to Anne. Consequently, Howard supported Richard III in deposing Edward's sons, for which he received the dukedom of Norfolk and his original share of the Mowbray estate. Northumberland had been captured and imprisoned by the Yorkists inlosing his titles and estates; however, Edward released him eight years later and restored his earldom.
Northumberland was mollified when he was promised he would be the Warden of the East Marcha position that was formerly hereditary for the Percys.
According to Carpenter, although the earl was amply compensated, he despaired of any possibility of advancement under Richard. Henry Tudor was unfamiliar with the arts of war and was a stranger to the land he was trying to conquer. He spent the first fourteen years of his life in Wales and the next fourteen in Brittany and France.
At the Battle of Barnet, he commanded the Lancastrian right wing and routed the division opposing him. However, as a result of confusion over identities, Oxford's group came under friendly fire from the Lancastrian main force and retreated from the field.
The earl fled abroad and continued his fight against the Yorkists, raiding shipping and eventually capturing the island fort of St Michael's Mount in He surrendered after receiving no aid or reinforcement, but in escaped from prison and joined Henry's court in France, bringing along his erstwhile gaoler Sir James Blount.
In the early stages of the Wars of the Roses, the Stanleys of Cheshire had been predominantly Lancastrians. Lord Stanley 's skilled political manoeuvrings—vacillating between opposing sides until it was clear who would be the winner—gained him high positions;  he was Henry's chamberlain and Edward's steward. The two had conflicts that erupted into violence around March Despite these differences, Stanley did not join Buckingham's revolt in However, he declared her titles forfeit and transferred her estates to Stanley's name, to be held in trust for the Yorkist crown.
Richard's act of mercy was calculated to reconcile him with Stanley,  but it may have been to no avail—Carpenter has identified a further cause of friction in Richard's intention to reopen an old land dispute that involved Thomas Stanley and the Harrington family.
Henry's initial force consisted of the English and Welsh exiles who had gathered around Henry, combined with a contingent of mercenaries Bluephoria / Chant Afrique - Various - The Battle Of Bosworth at his disposal by Charles VIII of France. No mention of Scottish soldiers was made by subsequent English historians. Henry's crossing of the English Channel in was without incident.
Thirty ships sailed from Harfleur on 1 August and, with fair winds behind them, landed in his native Walesat Mill Bay near Dale on the north side of Milford Haven on 7 August, easily capturing nearby Dale Castle. No joyous welcome awaited him on shore, and at first few individual Welshmen joined his army as it marched inland. The most important defector to Henry in this early stage of the campaign was probably Rhys ap Thomas, who was the leading figure in West Wales.
However, Henry successfully courted Rhys, offering the lieutenancy of all Wales in exchange for his fealty. Henry marched via Aberystwyth while Rhys followed a Bluephoria / Chant Afrique - Various - The Battle Of Bosworth southerly route, recruiting a force of Welshmen en My Melody Of Love - The Duluth Accordionaires - On Tour: Behind the Iron Curtain, variously estimated at or 2, men, to swell Henry's army when they reunited at Cefn DigollWelshpool.
Since 22 June Richard had been aware of Henry's impending invasion, and had ordered his lords to maintain a high level of readiness. On 16 August, the Yorkist army started to gather; Norfolk set off for Leicesterthe assembly point, that night.
Simultaneously Northumberland, whose northern territory was the most distant from the capital, had gathered his men and ridden to Leicester. Although London was his goal,  Henry did not move directly towards the city.
After resting in Shrewsbury, his forces went eastwards and picked up Sir Gilbert Talbot and other English allies, including deserters from Richard's forces. Although its size had increased Ill Never Get Over You Getting Over Me - Exposé - Greatest Hits since the landing, Henry's army was still substantially outnumbered by Richard's forces.
Henry's pace through Staffordshire was slow, delaying the confrontation with Richard so that he could gather more recruits to his cause. They ranged themselves ahead of Henry's march through the English countryside,  meeting twice in The Flight - To Hell With Burgundy - Special Reserve with Henry as he moved through Staffordshire.
He spent the night at the Blue Boar inn demolished The royal army proceeded westwards to intercept Henry's march on London. Passing Sutton CheneyRichard moved his army towards Ambion Hill —which he thought would be of tactical value—and made camp on it. He could see the Stanleys and their 4,—6, men holding positions on and around Dadlington Hill, while to the southwest was Henry's army.
Henry's force has been variously estimated at between 5, and 8, men, his original landing force of exiles and mercenaries having been augmented by the recruits gathered in Wales and the English border counties in the latter area probably mustered chiefly by the Talbot interestand by deserters from Richard's army. In their interpretations of the vague mentions of the battle in the old text, historians placed areas near the foot of Ambion Hill as likely regions where the two armies clashed, and thought up possible scenarios of the engagement.
As Henry's army advanced past the marsh at the southwestern foot of the hill, Richard sent a message to Stanley, threatening to execute his son, Lord Strangeif Stanley did not join the attack on Henry immediately. Stanley replied that he had other sons. Incensed, Richard gave the order to behead Strange but his officers temporised, saying that battle was imminent, and it would be more convenient to carry out the execution afterwards.
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